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tO««:TT££ OF ?Tr:L:iATio: 


Prof. A. D. Bache, President 
Prof. Lewis R. Gibbbs, Secretary. 
Dr. St. Julien Ravekel, Treasurer, 


Prof. A. D. Baohe, 
Prof. L. R. GiBBBs, 
Dr. St. Julien Rayenbl, 
Dr. A. A. Gould, 
Dr. J. E. HoLBRooK, 


Rev. Dr. J. Bachman, 
Prof. C. U. Shepard, 
Dr. James Moultrie, 
Dr. Robert W. Gibbbb. 


Dr. J. E. Holbrook, 
Rev. Dr. Bachman, 
Dr. James Moultrie, 

Dr. St. Juliek Ravbnel, 
Dr. P. C. Gaillard. 


Committee on the Communication of Lieut, Maury upon Winds and 


Pres. Sparks, of Cambridge, Mass. 

Prpf. Lewis R. Gibbes, of Charles- 
ton, S. C. 

Prof. Benjamin Peircb, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Wm. C. Redfibld, Esq., of N. York. 
J. Inoersoll BowDiTCH, Esq., of 

' Boston, Mass. 
Prof. Arnold Guyot, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Committee on the Prime Meridian, 

Prof. A. D. Bachb, Sup't. U. S. 
Coast Survey. 

Lieut. M. F. Maury, Sup't Nation- 
al Observatory. 

Prof. Barnard, of Alabama. 

Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes, of South- 

Prof. Courtbnay, University of 

Prof. S. Alexander, of Princeton, 

Prof. J. Frazer, University of 

Prof. Anderson, of New-York. 



Prod Mitchell, of Oindnnati. 

Prof. Stanley, Yale College. 

Hon. Wm. Mitchell, of Nantucket, 

Prof. LovEBiNOyUnivereitj at Gam- 

Prof. 8mtth, Bowdoin College. 

Pro£ WiNLOCK, of Kentucky. 

Pro£ CoAKLET, of St. James, Mary- 

Prof. CuRLET, (Georgetown College. 
Prof. Fowler, of Tennessee. 
Prof. Phillips, of North-Carolina. 
Pro£ Bartlett, of West Point 
Prof. Snell, of Amherst, Mass. 
Prof. Caswell, of Providence. 
Lieut. C. H. Davis, Sup't Nautica} 

Committee on the Subject of a Uniform Standard of Weights and 


Pro£ Jos. Henrt, of Washington, 

D. C. 
Prof. Arnold Guyot, of Cam-? 

bridge, Mass, 
Profl Stanley, of New-Haven, Con. 

Lieut. M. F. Maury, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Prof. A. D. Baohb, of Washings 
ton, D. C. 

Committee on the Publication of an Astronomical Journal : appointed 

in the Physical Section. 

Dr. B. A. Gould, of Cambridge, 

Prof. J. S. Hubbard, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Professor John H. C. Coffin, of 
Washington, D. C. 

Sears C. Walker, Esq., of Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Prof. Joseph Henry, of Washing- 
ton, D. 0. 

Prof. A. D. Bachb, of Washings 
ton, D. C. 

Lieut. M. F. Maury, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Lieut. C. H. Davis, of Cambridge, 
Mass. . 

Prof. Benjamin Peirce, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Committee to Memorialiw the State Oovemments on Geoloffieal Suiir<^ 


Dr. R. W. GiBBES, of Columbia, 

Pres. E. HrroHoocK, of Amherst 

Prof. H. D. Rogers, of Boston. 

Prof. L. AoAssiz, of Cambridge, 

Prof. B. SiLLiMAN, Sen., of New- 
Haven, Conn. 

Dr. S. G. Morton, of Philadelphia 
Dr. C. T. Jackson, of Boston. 
Gov. J. W. Mathews, of Jackson, 

Dr. G. Troqst, of Nashville, Tenn. 
Prof. Wm. B. Roobrs, of Char- 

J. Hamilton CouBEBt Esq., of J)a < 

rien, Geo^ 



T. RoauYN BxoK, of Albany, N. 

J08BPH Delafield, Esq., of New- 

Prof. Lewis C» Beck, of NeW" 
Brunswick, N. J. 

Prof. Joseph Henrt, of Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Committee to Memxyrialize the Legislature of Pennsylvania in Rrfe- 
rence to the Publication of the Final Geologkal Bipurt of that 

Pres. E. Hitchcock, of Amherst, 

Wm.C. Be&fibld, Esq^of N. York. 
Solomon W. Eobbbts^ Esq., of 


Prof. A. D. Bachb, of Washington. 
Prof. James Hall, of Albany. 
Prof. Henry D. Rogers, of Bos- 

Committee in Relation to the United States Coast Survey. 

Hon. Edward Everett, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Prof. Benjamin Pbircb, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 
Prof. Caswbll^ of Providence, R. I. 

Committee appointed Imt year, for Memorialieinp Congress in rela- 
tion to Scientific Explorations^ by a vote of the Association con- 
tinued for this year. 

Dr. Robert Hare, of Philadelphia. 

Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Sen., of 

Wm. C. Redfield, Esq., of New- 

Prof. Benjamin Pbircb, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Prof. Stephen Alexander, of 

Dr. Robert W. Qibbbs, of Colum- 
bia, 8. C. 

Prof. Henry D. Rogers, of Boston. 

Pres. Edward Hitchcock, of Am-. 
herst, Mass. 

Prof. Louis Agassiz, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Dr. Samuel G Morton, of Phila- 

Committee on Annual Assessment and Tickets, 

Prof. Asa Gray, of Cambridge, 

Prof. Henry D. Rogers, of Boston. 

Dr. Alfred L. Elwtn, of Pbila>- 



Committee on a change in the Constitution providing for Honorary 


Prof. Hbnbt D. Roobbs, of Boston. 

Prof. Bbnjamin Pbirgb, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Professor Waltbr R. Johnson, of 
Washington, D. C. 

Prof. Jambs Hall, of Albany. 
Prof. Bbnjamin Silliman, Jr., of 

Committee on Physical Constants, 

Prof. Frazbr, Philadelphia. 
Prof. LovERiNo, Cambridge, Mass. 
Professor Benjamin Pbiroe, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Prof. L. R. GiBBBS, Charleston, S.C< 
Prof. D. Olmsted, New-Haven. 
Mr. E. C. Hbrriok, New-Haven. 
Prof. Mitchell, Cincinnati. 


Prof. A. D. Bache, President. 
Mr. E. C. Hbrrick, Secretary, 
Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Treasurer. 


Prof. A. D. Bache, 
Mr. £. C. Hbrrick, 
Dr. A. L. Elwtn, 

£x officio. 

Prof. Joseph Hbnry. 
Prof. E. N. HoRSFORD. 


Rev. Dr. T. D. Wolbby. 
Prof. D. Olmsted. 
Prof. N. Porter, 


J. D. Dana, Esq. 

A. N. Skinner, Esq. 
Dr. John Knioht. 
£. K Sausburt, Esq. 
Pro! B. SiLiiMAN, Jr. 






NoTB.— NamM of deoeaaed memben u» nailced with m astarak, (*) and thoie of membcn 
IB 1840, formed the original ** Aanciation of Amerieav Cteologurts," an ia small capitals. 


Abbott, Dr. S. L., Boston. 
Abert, Col. J. J., Washington, D. C. 
Adams, Prof. C. B., Amherst, Mass. 
Adams, Solomon, Esq., Boston. 
Adams, Penteg'st., Esq., JefT'n co., N.Y. 
Adams, John 6., Esq., New- York. 
Agassiz, Prof. Louis, Cambridge, Mass. 
Aiken, Hon. Wm., Charleston, S. C. 
Aikin, Prof. W. E. A., Baltimore. 
Albro, Rev. Dr. J. A , Cambridge, Mass. 
Alexander, Prof. Steph., Princeton, N. J. 
Alexander, John H., Esq., Baltimore. 
Alexander, Dr. R. C, Bath, England. 
Alger, Francis, Esq., Boston. 
Alkton, R. F. W. Esq., Georgetown, S.C. 

Alvord, Dan. W., Esq., Greenfield, Mass. 
Allen, Z., Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Allen, Ira M., £^q.. New- York. 
Allen, J. B., Esq., Springfield, Mass. 
Allen, J. L., Esq., New- York. 
Ames, M. P., Esq., Springfield, Mass. 
Andrews, Stephen P., Esq., New- York. 
Andrews, Dr., Charlotte, N. C. 
Antisell, Dr. Thomas, New- York. 
Anthony, J. G., Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Appleton, Nathan, Esq., Boston. 
Ashmead, Samuel, Esq., Philadelphia. 

Atkinson, Mr. 1 Cumberland, Md. 

Atlee, Dr. Washington L., Lancaster, Pa. 
Ayers, William O., Esq., Boston. 


^ache, Prof. Alex. D., Washington, D. C. 
Bache, Dr. Franklin, Philadelphia. 
Bachman, Dr. John, Charleston, S. C. 
Bacmeister, H., Esq., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Bacon, Pres. 1 Washington, D. C. 

Bacon, Dr. John, Jr., Boston. 

Bailey, Prof. J. W., West Point, N. Y. 

Baird, Prof Spencer F., Carlisle, Pa. 

Bakewell, Robert, Esq., New-Haven, Ct 
Baker, Eben, Esq., Charlestown, Mass. 
Barker, Dr. Sanford, Charleston, S. C. 
Barratt, Dr. Joseph, Middletown, Ct. 
Barber, Rev. Isaac R., Worcester, Mass. 
Barbour, J. R., Bsq., Worcester, Mass. 
Barratt, Dr. J. P., Barrattsvillo, S. C. 
Beadle, Dr. Edward L., New- York. 


Beardsley, Dr. H. C, Painesrille, Ohio. 
Beck, Dr. T. Romeyn, Albany, N. Y. 
Beck, Dr. C. F., Philadelphia. 
Beck, Prof. Lewis C, N. Brunswick, N. J. 
Belknap, Greorge, Esq., Boston. 
Belknap, Henry, Esq., Boston 
Bell, Dr. John, Philadelphia. 
Bellinger, Dr. John, Charleston, S. C. 
Benedict, Prof. Farr'nd, N. Barl'gton, Vt. 
Bigelow, Dr. Henry J., Boston. 
*Binney, Dr. Amos, Boston. 
Binney, John, ESsq., Boston, Mass. 
Bigelow, Dr. Jacob, Boston. 
Blake, Wm. P., Esq., New-Haven, Ct. 
Blake, Wm. P., Esq., New- York. 
Blandmg, Dr. Wm., Philadelphia. 
Blake, John L., Esq., Boston. 
Blake, Eli W., Esq., New-Hayen, Ct 
Bliss, Geo., Jun., Esq., Springfield, Mass. 
Booth, Prof. James C, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Bolton, Richard, Esq., Pontotoc, Miss. 
Bonny castle. Sir Chas., Montreal, Can. 
*Bomford, Col. Geo., Washington, D. C. 
Bond, Dr. Henry, Philadelphia. 
Bond, Geo. P., Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 
Bond, Wm. C, Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 
Bontelle, C. O., Esq., Coast Surrey. 
BouT^, Thomas T., Esq., Boston. 

Boyfe, Dr. Martin H., Philadelphia. 
Boyd, Dr. Geo. W., Charlottesville, Va. 
Boyden, Uriah H., Esq., BoEton. 
Bowditch, Henry I., M.D., Boston. 
Bowman, A. H., U.S.A., Charleston, S.C. 
Brace, J. P., Hartford, Ct 
Bradidi, Hon. Luther, New-Yoik. 
Bleed, Dr. Daniel, New- York. 
Brevoort, J. Carson, Esq., Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Briggs, Charles, Jr., Esq., Columbus, O. 
Briggs, Chas. C, fisq., Charlottesville,ya. 
Bridges, Dr. Robert, Philadelphia. 
Brownne, Robert H., Esq., New- York. 
Brown, Rich., Esq., Sydney, Cape Breton. 
Browne, D. J., Esq., New- York, 
Brown, Dr. B. B., St Louis, Mo. 
Browne, Peter A., Esq., Philadelphia. 
Brown, Andrew, Esq., Natchez, Miss. 
Brumby, Prof. Rich. T., Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Burdett, F., Esq., Boston. 
Burden, Dr. T. L., Charleston, S. G. 
Bulfinch, Thomas, Esq., Boston. 
Buchanan, Mr. R., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Bu ge8s,Rev. Eben., Ahmednuggurjndia. 
Buckley, S. B., E^., New-York. 
Budd, Dr. B. W., New- York. 
Burnett, Waldo J., Boston, Mass. 


Cabot, Dr. Henry, Boston. 
Cabot, Edward C., Esq., Boston. 
Cabot, J. Elliott, Esq., Boston. 
Cabot, Samuel, Jr., Esq., Boston, Mass. 
Cain, Dr. D. J. C , Charleston, S. C. 
Calkars, Dr. Alonzo, New- York. 
Campbell, Robert, Esq., Pittsfield, Mass. 
Campbell, Dr. A. B., Philadelphia. 
Canning, E.W. B., Esq., Sf kbridge, Mass. 
Carr, Dr. E. S., Castleton, Vt 
Caipenter, Dr. Wm. M., New-Orleans. 
Caasels, J. Long, Esq., Willoughby, O. 
Cassin, John, E2sq., Philadelphia. 
Caswell, Prof. Alexis, Providence, R. I. 
Channing, Wm. F., Esq., Boston. 
Channing, Walter, M.D., Boston. 
Chase, Prof. George J., Providence, R. L 
Chase, Prof. 8., Dartmouth, N. H. 
Chase, D., Esq., Hanover, N. H. 
Chapman, Dr. N., Philadelphia. 
Chauvenet, C. U., Esq., Annapolis, Md. 
Chamberlain, Nathan B., Esq., Boston. 
Chandler, John, Esq., Boston. 
Cheves, Dr. C. M., Charleston, S. C. 
Chesborough, E. S., West Newton, Mass. 
Chilton, Dr. J. R., New- York. 
Chickering, Dr. Jesse, Boston. 
Clapp, Dr. Asahel* New- Albany, In. 
Clay, Joseph A., Esq., Philadelphia. 

Clark, Wm. S., Esq., East Hampton. 
Cleaveland, Prof. Parker, Brunswick, Me. 
Cleaveland, Dr. A. B., Salem, Mass. 
Cleaveland, Dr. A. B., Dedham, Mass. 
Clingman, Hon. T. L., Asheville, N. C. 
Coates, Dr. B. H., Philadelphia. 
Coates, Dr. Reynell, Philadelphia. 
Coan, Rev. Titus, Hiio, Hawaii. 
Coffin, Prof. .Tnmes H., Easton, Pa. 
Coffin, Prof. J. H. C, Washington, D.C. 
Cohen, Dr. J. J., Baltimore, Md. 
Colton, Oliver, Esq., Salem, Mass. 
Cole, Thomas, Esq., Salem, Mass. 
*Cohnan, Rev. Henry, Boston. 
Conrad, Timothy A., Esq., Philadelphia. 
Congdon, Charles, Esq., New- York. 
Cooper, Wm., Esq., New- York. 
Cooke, George H., Esq., Troy, N. Y. 
Cooke, Josiah P., Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 

Cotting, Dr. B. E., 1 Georgia. 

Couthouy, Joseph P., Esq., New- York 
Couper, J. Hamilton, Esq., Darien, Ga. 
Cozzens, Issachar, Esq., New* York. 
Cresson, J. C, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Crossley, Richard, Esq., Boston. 
Curtis, Rev. M. A., Society HUl, S. C. 
Curtis, Dr. Joshiah, Lowell, Mass. 
Curtis, L. W., Unionvlile, S. C. 




Dale» L. D., Esq., New- York. 
DaDa, Rev. J. J., South Adams, Mass. 

Daniels, Dr. ^? Savannah, Ga. 

Dana, Dr. Samuel L., Lowell, Mass. 
Dana, James D., Esq., New-Haven, Ct. 
Darracott, 6. B., Esq., Boston. 
Davis, Dr. Charles, Charleston, S. C. 
Davis, James, Jr., Esq., Boston. 
Davis, Lt. C. H., U.S.N., Camb'ge, Mass. 
Deane, Dr. James, Greenfield, Mass. 
Dearborn, William L., Esq., Roxbury. 
Dearborn, (Jen. H. A.S., Roxbury. 
DeKay, Dr. James E., New- York. 
Delafield, Joseph, Esq., New. York. 

Desor, E., Esq., Cambridge, Maw. 
DeSaussure, H. A., E^^q., Charleston, S.0< 
DeSaussure, Dr. H. W., Charleston, S.C. 
Dewey, Prof. Chester, Rochester, N. Y. 
Dickeson, Dr. M. W., Philadelphia. 
Dickson, Samuel H., M.D., New- York. 
Dillaway, C. K., Esq., Roxbury. 
Dinwiddle, Robert, Esq., New- York. 
Dixwell, S. Epes, Esq., Boston. 
D'Orbigny, M. Alcide, Paris. 
Douglass, C. C, Esq., Detroit, Mich. 
*Ducatel, Dr. J. T., Baltimore, Md. 
Dutton, Thos. R., Esq., New-Haven, Ct. 


Eastabrook, Rev. Joseph, E. Tenn. Coll. 
Eights, Dr. James, Albany, N« Y. 
Ellsworth, H. L., Esq., Lafayette, la. 
EUet, Prof. Wm. H., New-Yo k. 
Elwyn, Dr. Alfred L., Philadelphia. 
Elliott, Hon. Wm., Beaufort, S. C. 
Emerson, George B., Esq., Boston. 
Emmons, Prof. Ebenezer, Albany, N.Y. 

Emmons, Ebenezer, Jr., Albany, N. Y. 
Engstrom, A. 6., Esq., Burlington, N. J. 
Engelman, Dr George, St. Louis, Mo. 
Espy, James P., Esq,, Washington, D. 0. 
Eustis, Prof. Henry L., Cambrklge, Mass. 
Everett, Frank., E6q.,Canajoharie, N. Y. 
Everett, Franklin, Esq., Boston. 
Everett, Pres. Edw., Cambridge, Mass. 

Felton, Prof. C. C, Cambridge. 
Felton, John B., Esq., Cambridge. 
Felton, Samuel M., Charlestown. 
Feuchtwanger, Lewis, Esq., New- York. 
Finley, Pres. Wm. P., Charleston, S, C. 
Fisher, Thomas, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Fitch, Alex., Esq., Ca.lisle, N. Y. 
Fitch, Dr. Asa, Salem, N. Y. 
Flagg,Lt. H. C, U.S.N.,N. Haven, Ct. 
Forbes, Robert, Esq , New-Haven, Ct. 
Forbes, R. W., M.D., New- York. 
Foreman, Dr. Edward, Baltimore, Md. 

Forbes, C. E., Esq., Northampton, Mass. 
Forrest, Rev. John, Charle&ton, S. C. 
Foster, Prof. John, Schenectady, N. Y. 
Foster, S. W., Esq., Zanesviile, Ohio. 
Foster, Dr. Joel, New-York. 
Fowle, Wm. B., Esq., Boston. 
Frazer, Prof. John F. , Philadelphia. 
Fremont, Col. J. C, Washington, D. C. 
French, Benj. F., Esq., Philadelphia. 
Frick, Dr. George, Baltimore, Md. 
Frost, Prof. H. R., Charleston, S. C. 


Gaillard, Dr. P. C, Charleston, S. C 
Gaidtn, Benj., Charleston, S. C. 
Garland, Prof. L. C , Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Gavitt, John G., Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
*Gay, Dr Martin, Boston. 
G«bhard, John, Esq., Scoharie, N. Y. 
Gebhard, John, Jr., Scoharie, N. Y. 
Geddings, Prof. E., Charleston, S. C. 
Grermain, Prof. Levna J. , Burlington, N J. 
Gerolt, Baron A. Von, Washington, D.C. 
Gibbs, Dr. Wolcott, New-York. 
Gibbs, George, Esq., New- York. 
Gibbes, Prof. L. R., Charleston, S. C 
Gibbes, Dr. Robert W., Columbia, S. C, 
Gibbon, Dr. J. H., Charlotte, N.C 
Gibbons, Dr. Henry, Philadelphia. 

*Gilmor, Robert, Esq., Baltimore, Md. 
Gilliss, Lieut, J. M., Washington, D.Cr 
Glynn, Comm. James, U.S.N., N. Haven. 
Girard, Charles, Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 
Goddard, Dr. P. B., Philadelphia. 
Gould, Dr. A. A., Boston. 
Gould, B. A., Esq., Boston. 
Gould, Dr. B. A., Jr., Cambridge. 
Gourdin, Henry, Esq , Charleston, S. C, 
Gourdin, Robt, N., Esq., Charleston, S.C. 
Graham, Maj. Jas. D., Washington, U, C 
Gray, Prof. Asa, Cambridge, Mass 
Gray, Rev. Alonzo, Brooklyn, N, Y. 
Green, James, Esq., Baltimore, Md. 
Green, Dr. Traill, Easton, Pa. 
Green, A. Thos., Esq., N. Bedford, Mass. 



Greene, Dr. Benjamin D., Boston. 
Greene, S. D., Esq., Boston. 
Greene, Dr B. F., Chestertown, Md. 
Gregg, Wm., Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

Griscom, Prof. John, Burlington, N. J. 
Griffith, Dr. Robert E., Philadelphia. 
Guyot, Prof. A., Cambridge, Mass. 
Guy, Dr. S. S., Brooklyn, N. Y, 


Hall, Prof. James, Albany, N. Y. 
Halleck, Lieut. H. W.,U. S. Eng. Corps, 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Haldeman, Prof. S. S., Columbia, Pa. 
*Hale,Dr. Enoch, Boston. 
Hall, Edwards, Esq., San Francisco, Cal. 
*Hall, Dr. Frederick, Washington, D. C. 
Hall, Rev. Wm., Mobile, Ala. 
Hamilton, Dr., Mobile, Ala. 
Hammond, Ogden, Esq., Charleston, S. C 
Haven, Simon Z., Esq., Utica, N. Y. 
*Hayden, Dr. H. H., Baltimore, Md. 

Hardy, Dr. 1 Asheville, N. 0. 

Hare, Dr. Robert, Philadelphia. 
Harvey, Hon. Matthew, Hopkinton, N.H. 
Harvey, Prof Wm. H.,Trin. Coll., Dublin. 
Hart, Simeon, Esq., Farmington, Ct. 
Hartley, M. B., Esq., Montreal, Can. 
*Harlan, Dr. Richard, Philadelphia- 
Harris, Dr. Thad. W., Cambridge, Mass. 
Hawkesworth, Prof. W., Cha'ston, S. C. 
Hay, Dr. George, Barnwell, S. C. 
Hayden, C. B., Esq., Smithiield, Va. 
Hays, Dr. Isaac, Philadelphia. 
Hayefe, John L., Esq., Portsmouth, N. H. 
Hayes, Aug. A., EcK]., Lawrence, Mass. 

Haynesworth, Dr. 1 Sumterville,S.C. 

Hajrward, James, Esq., Booton. 

Henry, Prof. Joseph, Washing' on, D. C. 

Herrick, Ed. C, Esq., New- Haven, Ct 

Henderson, A. A., Esq., Huntingdon, Pa. 

Horlbeck, Dr. E., Charleston, S. C. 

*HoRTON, Dr. Wm., Craigville, Orange 
county, N. Y. 

Hickok, Dr. Wm. C, New- York. 

Hildreth, Dr S. M. P., Marietta, O. 

Hill, Rev. Thomas, Waltham, Mass. 

Hillard, Geo. S., Esq., Boston. 

Hincks, Rev. William, London. 

Hitchcock, Pres. Edw., Amherst, Mass. 

Hodge, Jas. T., Esq., Stockbridge, Mass. 

Holbrook, Dr. John E., Charleston, S. C. 

Holmes, F. S., Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

Hopkins, Prof. Alb.,Williamstown, Mass. 

Horsford, Prof. E. N., Cambridge, Mass. 

♦Houghton, Dr. Douglass, Detroit, Mich. 

Howe, Dr. S. G., Boston. 

Hubbard, Bela, Esq., Detroit, Mich. 

Hubbard, Prof. Oliver P., Hanover, N. H. 

Hubbard, Prof J. S., Washington, D. 0. 

Hume, Dr. W., Charleston, S. C. 

Humphreys, Rev. Dr. Hector, Annapo- 
lis, Md. 

Hunt, Thomas S-, Esq., Montreal, Can. 

Hunt, Lt. E. B., U. S. Engineers, Boston. 

Ingalls, Dr. Thos. R., Greenwich, N. Y. j Irwin, Dr. 


A Morgantown, N. C. 

Jackson, Dr. Charles T., Boston. 
Jackson, Dr. J. B. S., Boston. 
Jackson, Dr. R. M. S., Alexandria, Pa. 
Jackson, Dr. Samuel, Philadeiphia. 
Jamison, D. F., Esq., Orangeburg, S. C. 
Jay, Dr. John 0., New- York. 
Jenks, W. P., Esq., Middleboro', Mass. 
Jervey, Dr. J. P., Charleston, S. C. 
Jewett, C. C, Esq., Washington, D. C. 
John, Samuel F., Esq., Cambridge. 

Johnson, Dr. Joseph, Charleston, S. O. 
Johnson, James, L.sq., Charleston, S. C. 
Johnson, Syd. L.,Esq., New-Orleans. 
Johnston, Prof John, Middletown, Ct. 

Johnson, Lieut. ? Whashita, Texas. 

Johnson, Prof W. R., Washington, D.C. 
Jones, Dr. Wm. L., Athens, Ga. 
Jones, Edward, Esq., Charleston, S.C. 
Jines, Thos. P., M.D., Stockbridge, Mass. 


Kain, Dr. John H., New-Haven, Ct. 
Keely, Prof G. W., Waterville, .Me. 
Kendall, E. Otis, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Kendrick, Lt. H. L., West Point, N. Y. 
Kenney, Wm. B., Esq., Newark, N. J. 
Kellogg, Orson, Elsq., New- York. 
Keller, Dr. Wm., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Kmg, Dr. Alfred T., Greensburg, Pa. 
King, Dr. Henry, St. Louis, Mo. 
King, Hon. Mitchell, Charleston, S. C. 
Kirtland, Dr. J. P., Cleveland, O. 
Kneeland, Dr. Samuel, Jr., Boston^ 
Kurtz, Lieut., U. S. A. 




Lamb, James, Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

Laoe, 1 Esq., Milledgeville, Ga. 

Lapham, Incr'se A., Esq.,Milwaukie,Wi8. 
Lasel, Prof. Edw., Williamatown, Mass. 
Lawrence, Hon. Amos, Boston. 
Lawrence, Dr. Wm. Boston. 
Lawrence, Amos ^. Esq. Boston. 
Lea, Idaac, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Leavenworth, Dr. M. C, Waterbury, Ct. 
Le Conte, Dr. John, L., New- York. 
LecoDte, Dr. Joseph, Macon, Ga. 
Leconte, Prof. John, Athens, Ga. 
♦Lederer, Baron Von, Washington, D.C. 
Lee, John C, Esq., Salem, Mass. 
Lee, Charles A., Esq., New- York. 
Leonard, Dr. Fred. B., Washington, N.Y. 
Lesesne, Henry D. Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

Lesley, J. P. Esq., Milton, Mass. 
Lesley, Rev. Peter, Jr. Boston. 
Lettsom, W. J. Esq., Washington, D.C. 
Lewis, Robert C. Esq., Shelby ville, Ky. 
Lieber, Dr. Francis, Columbia, S. C. 
Linck, Dr. Christian, Philadelphia. 
Lindsley, Dr. J. B., Nashville, Tenn. 
Linklaen, Ledy'rd, Esq., Cazenovia, N. Y. 
Lindsley, Rev. James H., Strafford, Ct 
Lischka, Emlie, Esq., Washington, D. C. 
Locke, J. H., Nashua, N. H. 
Logan, Wm. E., Esq., Montreal, Can. 
Loomis, Prof. Elias, New- York. 
Levering, Prof. Jos. Cambridge, Mass. 
Lynch, Rev. Dr. Charleston, S. C. 
Lyell, Charles, Esq., London. 


Maffit, Lieut. J. N., U. S. N. 

Malone, ? Esq., Athens, Ga. 

Manigault, Edward, Esq., Charleston,S.C. 
Marsh, Dexter, Esq. Greenfield, Mass. 
Markoe, Francis, Jr., Esq.,Wash'gton,D.C. 
Mason, Owen, Esq., Providence, R. L 
Mathews, Gov. Jos. W., Jackson, Miss. 
Mather, Wm. W., Esq., Jackson C. H., 

Maury, Lieut. M. F., Washington, D. C. 
Mauran, Dr. J. Providence, R. I. 
Mantell, Reginald Neville, Esq., London, 

McCulloch, Prof R. S., Princeton. N. J. 
McEwen, Dr. Thomas, Philadelphia. 
McKiNLEY, Alexander, Philadelphia. 
McMurtrie, Dr. H. Philadelphia. 
McRae, Johut Esq., Charleston, S. C. 
McKay, Prof C. F., Athens, Ga. 
Meigs, H., Esq. New- York. 
Melsheimer, Dr.F.E., Dover,York co. J*a. 

Merrick, F. Esq., Athens, O. 
Metcalfe, Dr. S. L. Kentucky. 
Merrick, S. V. Esq., Philadelphia. 
Michel, Dr. M., Charleston, S. 0. 
Michelotti, M. J. Turin, Piedmont, Italy. 
Mighels, Dr. J. W. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Millington, Dr. Jno., Williamsburg, Va. 
Miller, H. B., Esq., New- York. 
Mitchell, Hon. Wm. Nantucket. 
Mitchell, Dr. J. K., Philadelphia. 
Mitchell, Prof O. M., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Mitchell, Prof. E., Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Morris, Rev. John G., Baltimore, Md. 
Morton, Dr. S. G., Philadelphia. 
Morris, O. W. Esq., New- York. 
Morris, Rev. R. Jackson, Miss. 
Moss, Theodore F., Esq. Philadelphia. 
Matter, Dr. Thomas D., Philadelphia. 
Moultrie, Dr. J., Charleston, S. C. 
Moultrie, Dr. Wm. L., Charleston, S. C. 
Muzzey, John, Esq., Portland, Me. 


Newman, Dr. ? Huntsville, Ala. 

Newton, Rev. E. H., Cambridge, N. Y. 
* Nicollet, J. N., Esq., Washington, D. C. 
Nichols, Dr. Andrew, Danvers, Mass. 

Nichols, Prof. ? Schenectady, N. Y. 

Norwood, Dr. J. G., Madison, Indiana. 
Norton, Prof J. P., New-Haven. 
Nott, Dr. J. C, Mobile, Ala. 


* Oakes, Wm., Esq., Ispwich, Mass. 
Ogier, Dr. T. L., Charleston, S. C. 
Olcott, Thomas W., Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Oliver, J. D., Esq., Lynn, Mass. 
Olmsted, Lesnuel G., Esq., New- York. 
Olmsted, Prof D., New-Haven, Ct., 
Ohnsted, Chas. H., Esq., E. Hartford, Ct 

* Olmsted, Dennison, Jr., Esq., N. Haven. 
Olney, Stephen P., Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Ordway, John M., Esq., Roxbury, Mass. 
O^bom, A., Esq., Herkimer, N. Y. 
Owen, Hon. Rob. D., N. Harmony, Ind. 
Owen, Dr. David D., N. Harmony, Ind. 


Page, Dr. Cha& G., Washington, D. C. i Percival, Dr. J. G. New-Haven, Ct 
Parker, Charles, Esq., Charleston, S. C. I PhJlipS) John S., Esq., Philadelphia 



Parker, Sam*l. J., Esq., Ithaca, N. Y. 
* Parkman, Dr Samuel, Boston. 
ParsonB, Theophilus, Esq., Cambridge. 
Park, Rev. Roswell C, Norwich, Ct. 
Palmer, Aaron A., Esq., N. Y. 
Peale, Titian R., E?q., Washington, D. C. 
Peabody, Francis, E^q., Salem, Mass. 
Pearson, Prof. Jona. Shenectady, N. Y. 
Pierce, Prof. Benjamin, Cambridge, Mass. 
Pendergast, John G. Smithville, Jefferson 
County, New- York. 

Pendleton, Dr. 1 Sparta, Ga. 

Perry, Com. Mathew C. New- Vork. 
Perkins, Rev. Justin, Oroomiah, Persia. 
Perkins^ Di. H. C, Newburyport, Mass. 
Perkins, Prof. G. R., Albany, N. Y. 

Pickering, Dr. Charles, Boston. 
Pitcher, Dr. Zina, Detroit, Mich. 
Plant, I. C„ Esq., Macon, Ga. 
Porcher, Piof. F. A., Charleston, S. C. 
Porcher, Dr. Francis P., Charleston, S. C» 
Porter, B. F., E^q., Charleston, S. C. 
Porter, Prof. John A., Cambridge, Mass. 
Powers, A. E., £^., Lansingburg, N. Y. 
Pourtales, Ch. F. de, Washington, D. C» 
Poulson, Chas. A., Esq., Philadelphia. 
Prentice, E. P , Esq., Albany, New-York- 
Prioleau, Dr. Thomas, Charleston, S. C. 
Pruyn, J. V. L , Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Prescott, Dr. Wm. Concord, N. H. 
Putnam, Allen, Esq , Boston. 
Pynchon, Thomas R., Esq., Hartford, Ct. 


Randall, S. S. Esq , Albany, N. Y. 
Ravenel,Dr. Edmund, Charleston, S. C. 
Ravenel Dr. St. Julien, Charleston, S. C. 
Ravenel, H. Esq., Charleston, S. C. 
Ravenel, Dr. Henry, Charleston, S C. 
Redtield, Wm C. Esq., New- York. 
Redfield, John H., E=q., New-York. 
Reed, Dr. Stephen, Richmond, Mass. 
Re.d, Dr. W. W., Rochester, New- York. 
Renwick, Prof. James, New- York. 
Riddell, Dr. John L New-Orleans. 

Riell, Lieut. ? U. S. N. 

Rhett^ James, Esq,, Charleston, S. C. 
Roberts, Solomon, W., Esq., Philadelphia. 

Saemann, Louis, Berlin, Prussia. 
Salisbuiy, J. E., Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Saxton Joseph, Esq., Washington, D. C. 
Saynish, Dr Lewis, Blossburg, Penn. 
Scarborough, Rev. Geo., Owensbu'g, Ky. 
Schaeffer, George C, Esq., New-York. 
Scholfield, Isaac, Jr., Esq., Boston. 

Schumard, Dr. 1 Louisville, Ky. 

Screven, Dr. T. P. Savannah, Ga. 
Sears, P. H., Esq., Cambridge, Mass. 
Ceely, W. A., Esq., New- York. 
Seward, Hon Wm. H., Auburn, N. Y. 
Sejbett, Henry, Esq., Pliiladelphia. 

Sherman, Prof. ? Howard Col., Ala. 

Sherwin, Thomas, Esq. Boston. 
Shepard, Rev. G. C, Chs^rleston,S. C. 
Shorty Dr. Charles, Louisville, Ky. 
Sbattuck, Dr. George, Jr , Boston. 
Shepard, Perkins, Esq , Providence, R. I. 
ShurUe^ Dr. N B., Boston. 
Sillimao, Prof Benjamin, New-Haven. 
Silliman, Prof. Benjn., Jr.. New-Haven. 
Siamonda, Dr. Eugene, Tui in, Piedmont, 

Smith, Peter, M* D., Nashville, Tenn. 

Roberts, Algernon S., Esq Philadelphia 
Robertson, Dr. F. M., Charleston. 
Roemer, Dr. Fred'k, Berlin, Prussia. 
Rogers, Prof. W. B., Charlottsville, Va. 
Rogers, Prof.RoBT. E., Charlott'ville,Va. 
Rogers, Prof. Henry D., Boston, Mass. 
Rogers, Prof. James B. Philadelphia, 
Root, O., Esq,, Syracuse, N. Y. 
Ruffin, Edwd., Esq., Petersburg, Va. 

Ruggles, Lieut. ? Detroit, Mirh. 

Runkle, J. D , Esq. Carlisle, N. Y. 
Russell, Rev. John L., Hingham, Mass. 
Ruschenberger, Dr.W. S. W., Brooklyn, 


Smith, Erastas, Esq., Hartford, Ct. 
Smith, Dr. J. V. C, Boston. 
Smith, J. Lawrence, Esq., Constantino- 
ple, Turkey. 
Smith, Oliver, Esq., New- York. 
Snell, Prof. Eben S., Amherst, Mass. 
Sommers, Rev. Dr., Charleston. S. C. 
Sparks, Pres. Jared, Cambridge, Mass. 
Spooner, Edward, Plymouth, Mass. 
Soule, Richard, Jr., Esq., Boston. 

Sowell,Dr. ? Athens, Ala. 

Spillman, Dr. Wm., Columbus, Ohio. 
Spinner, Francis E.,Esq., Herkimer, N.Y. 
Squier, E. G. Esq., U. S. Charge des Af- 
faires to Central America. 
St. John, Prof. Samuel, Hudson, Ohio. 
Stebbins, Rev. Rufus P., Carhsle, Pa. 
Stephens, A. H., Esq., New- York. 
Stimpson, Wm., £^q., Cambridge, Mass. 
Scorer, Dr. D. H., Boston. 
Stodder, Chas , Esq., Boston. 
Strong, Dr. Woodbridge, Boston 
Sumner, Chas., Esq., Boston. 
Swif^ Dr. Wm , U. S. Navy, New- York. 
Swift, Dr. Paul, Philadelphia. 


Talmadge, Hon. James, New- York. 
Tappan, Hon. Benj'n., Steubenville, O. 
Taylor, Dr. Julius S , Carrolton, Mont- 
gomery Co., Ohio. 

Totten, Rev. Silas, Hartford, Ct. 
Townsend, Jno. K., Esq , Philadelphia. 
Townsend, Dr. ? John's Island,S.C. 

Trenholm, Geo. A., Epq., Charleston, S.C. 
Taylor, Richard C, Esq , Philadelphia. Troost, Dr. Gerard, Nashville, Tenn. 
Tellkampf, Theodore A., Esq., N. York, Torrey, Dr. John, New- York. 
Teschermakst, E. D., Schenectady, N. Y i Totten, Col. J. G., Washington, D. C. 
Teschmacher, J. E., Esq , Boston. j Trego, Chas. B., Esq., Philadelphia. 

Thayer, Solomon, Esq., Lubec, Me. 
Thayer, Henry W., Esq., Boston, Mass. 
Thompson, Hon.Waddy, Greenville,S.C. 
Thompson, Rev. Z. R., Middlebury, Vt. 
Thompson, John Edgar, Esq , Phiia. 

Thompson, Dr. 1 Aurora, N. Y. 

Thompson, Aaron R., New-York. 
Thurber, George, Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Torrey, Prof. Joseph, University of Vt. 

Treadwell, Prot. J., Ci^mbridge, Mass. 
Troo&t, Lewis, Esq., Nashville, Tenn. 
True, Nath'l. T., Esq., Monmouth, N.J. 
Tucker, George, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Tuckerman, Edward, Esq., Boston. 
Tuomey, Prof. M., Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Turner, Rev. W. W., Hartford, Ct. 
* Tyler, Rev. Edward R., N. Haven, Ct 

Vancleve, John W.,Esq ,'Dayton, Ohio. 
Van Lennep, Rev. H., Constantinople. 

* Vanuxem, Lardker, Esq., Bristol, Pa. 
Vauz, Wm. S. S., Esq., Philadelphia. 


Wadsworth, Jas. S., Esq., Gene?eo, N Y. 
Wailes, Col. B. L. C, Washington, D C 
Walker, S^ara, Q., Esq,, Washington, 

Wallace, Rev. C, Charleston, S C. 
Ward, Dr. Mathew A , Athens, Ga. 
Warren J, Mason, Boston, Mass. 
Warriner, Prof. Justin B., Burlington ,N .J. 
Warren, Dr. John C , Boston, Mass. 
Weaver, G. S., Esq., Cambridgeport,N.Y. 
* Webster, M. H., Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Webber, Dr. Samuel, Chailortown, N. H. 
Webster, Dr. J. W., Cambridge, Mass. 
♦Webster, H. B., Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Wedderbum, A. J., Esq., New-dleaus. 
Wells, David A., Springfield, Mass. 
Wells, Samuel, Eeq., Northampton, Mass. 
Weld, Henry Thomas, Jr , Esq, Mount 

Savage Works, Md. 
West, Charles E., Esq., N. Y. 
Wetherill,Prof Leander, Rochester.N.Y. 
Wetherill, John P., Esq , Philadelphia. 
Whelpky, W. J. D., Esq , N. York City. 
Wheatley, Chas. M., Esq., New- York. 
Wheatland, Dr. Henry, Salem, Mass 
Whipple, Milton D., Esq , Lowell, Mass. 
White, E. B., Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

Whitridge, Dr. ? Charleston, S 0. 

White Rev. Greorge, Marietta, Ga. 

Whittich, Esq. , ? Pennfield, Ga. 

Whittlesey, Charles, Columbus, Ohio. 
Whitney, Asa, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Whitman, v\ m. E , Esq., Philadelphia. 
Whitney, J. D., Esq.,Northampton,Ma8B. 
Whiitemore, Thos J., Esq., Cambridge. 
Whiting, Col. H., Detroit, Mich. 
Wilder, L , Esq., Hoosick Falls, N. Y. 
Wjlliams, Mo^es B , Esq , Boston. 
Wilder, Henry, Esq., Lancaster, Mass. 
Wilkes, Com. Charles, U. S. N., Wash- 
ington, D. 0. 
Wightman, Rev. Dr., Charleston, S. C. 
Williman, Dr. A. B., Charleston, S. C. 
Wilson, Dr. Samuel, C'harleston, S. C. 
Winslow, G., Esq., Staten Island, N. Y. 
Wolf, Dr. Elias, New- York. 
Worcester, Dr. Jos. E., Cambridge, Mass. 
Woodbury, Hon. L.,Poitsmouth, N.H. 
Wragg, Dr. W., Charleston, S. C. 
♦Wright, Dr. John, Troy, N. Y. 
Wright, A. D., Esq., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Wurtz, Jacob H., Esq., New- York, 
Wyman, Dr. Jeffries, Cambridge. 
Wyman, Dr. Morrill, Cambridge. 


Yates, Giles F., Esq., Albany, N. Y. I Young, Prof. Ira, Hanover, N. H. 
Yeadon, Richard, Esq., Charleston, S.C. I 


Zimmermann, C, Esqr., Columbia, St C. | 



Oommittee on a change in the Constitution providing for Honorary 


Prof. Hbnrt D. Roobbb, of Boston. 

Prof. Benjamin Psirce, of Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Professor Walter R. Johnson, of 
Washington, D. C. 

Prof. James Hall, of Albany. 
Prof. Benjamin Silliman, Jr., of 

Committee on Physical Constants. 

Prof. Frazsr, Philadelphia. 
Prof. LovsRiNG, Cambridge, Mass. 
Professor Benjamin Peirce, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Prof. L. R. GiBBEs, Charleston, S.G« 
Prof. D. Olmsted, New-Haven. 
Mr. E. C. Herrick, New-Haven. 
Prof. Mitchell, Cincinnati. 


Prof. A. D. Bache, President. 
Mr. E. C. Herrick, Secretary. 
Dr. A. L. Elwyn, Treasurer. 


Prof. A. D. Bache, 
Mr. £. C. Herrick, 
Dr. A. L. Elwyn, 

^x officio. 

Prof. Joseph Henry. 
Prof. E. N. HoRSFORD. 


Rev. Dr. T. D. Wolsey. 
Prof D. Olmsted. 
Prof. N. Porter. 
William Hillhouse, Esq. 
J. D. Dana, Esq. 

A. N. Skinner, Esq. 
Dr. John Enioht. 
E. E. Salisbury, Esq. 
Prof. B. Siliiman, Jr. 






NoTB.— NamM of deonaed nembon an muked with an utmiA, (*) and ihtm of membcn wko. 

IB 1810, fimned the original ** Aaoeiation of Amerieaa 


are in imaU eapitala. 


Abbott, Dr. S. L., Boston. 
Abort, Col. J. J., Washington, D. C. 
Adams, Prof. C. B., Amherst, Mass. 
Adams, Solomon, Esq., Boston. 
Adams, Penteg'st., Esq., JeiT'n co., N.Y. 
Adams, John G., Esq., New- York. 
Agassiz, Prof. Louis, Cambridge, Mass. 
Aiken, Hon. Wm., Charleston, S. C. 
Aikin, Prof. W. E. A., Baltimore. 
Albro, Rev. Dr. J. A , Cambridge, Mass. 
Alexander, Prof. Steph., Princeton, N. J. 
Alexander, John H., Esq., Baltimore. 
Alexander, Dr. R. C, Bath, England. 
Alger, Francis, Esq., Boston. 
Alkton, R. F. W. Esq., Georgetown, S.C. 

Alvord, Dan. W., Esq., Greenfield, Mass. 
Allen, Z., Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Allen, Ira M., Esq., New- York. 
Allen, J. B., Esq., Springfield, Mass. 
Allen, J. L., Eaq., New- York. 
Ames, M. P., Esq., Springfield, Mass. 
Andrews, Stephen P., Esq., New- York. 
Andrews, Dr., Charlotte, N. C. 
Antisell, Dr. Thomas, New- York. 
Anthony, J. G., Esq., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Appleton, Nathan, Esq., Boston. 
Ashmead, Samuel, Esq., Philadelphia. 

Atkinson, Mr. 1 Cumberland, Md. 

Atlee, Dr. Washington L., Lancaster, Pa. 
Ayers, William O., Esq., Boston. 


JBache, Prof. Alex. D., Washington, D. C. 
Bacbe, Dr. Franklin, Philadelphia. 
Bachman, Dr. John, Charleston, S. C. 
Bacmeister, H., Esq., Schenectady, N. Y. 

Bacon, Pres. f Washington, D. C. 

Bacon, Dr. John, Jr., Boston. 

Bailey, Prof J. W., West Point, N. Y. 

Baird, Prof. Spencer F., Carlisle, Pa. 

Bakewell, Robert, Esq., New-Haven, Ct. 
Baker, Eben, Eisq., Charlestown, Mass. 
Barker, Dr. Sanford, Charleston, S. C. 
Barratt, Dr. Joseph, Middletown, Ct. 
Barber, Rev. Isaac R., Worcester, Mass. 
Barbour, J. R., Bsq., Worcester, Mass. 
Barratt, Dr. J. P., Barrattsville, 8. C. 
Beadle, Dr. Edward L., New- York. 


longer, the time and place of each meeting being determined by a vote 
of the Association at the previous meeting ; and the arrangements for 
it shall be entrusted to the Officers and the Local Committee. 


Rule Y. There shall be a Standing Committee, to consist of the Presi- 
dent^ Secretary, and Treasurer of the Association, the Officers of the 
preceding year, the Chairman and Secretaries of the Sections, after 
these shall have been organized, and six other members present, who 
shall have attended any of the previous meetings, to be elected by ballot- 

Rule 8. sThe Committee, whose duty it shall be to manage the gen- 
eral Jn^iness of the Association, shall sit during the meeting, and. at any 
time4Pthe interval between it and the next meeting, as the interests of 
the Association may require. It shall also be the duty of this Committee 
to nominate the General Officers of the Association for the following 
year, and persons for admission to membership. 


Rule 0. The Standing Committee shall organize the Society into 
Sections, permitting the number and scope of these Sections to vary, in 
conformity to the wishes and the scientific business of the Association. 

Rule 10. It shall be the duty of the Standing Committee, if at any 
time, two or more Sections, induced by a deficiency of scientific commu- 
nications, or by other reasons, request to be united into one ; or if at 
any time a single Section, overloaded with business asks to be subdivided, 
to effect the change, and, generally, to readjust the subdi\nsions of the 
Association, whenever, upon due representation, it promises to expedite 
the proceedings, and advance the purposes of the meeting. 


Rule 11. Each Section shall appoint its own Chairman and Secre- 
tary of the Meeting, and it shall likewise have a Standing Committee, 
of such size as the Section may prefer. The Secretaries of the Sections 
may appoint assistants, whenever, in the discharge of their duties, it be- 
comes expedient 

Rule 1 2. It shall be the duty of the Standing Committee of each 
Section, assisted by the Oiairman, to a:r\ngo and direct the proceed- 
ings in their Section, to a^cit liu whut ^rltUiii a Ki oral co^umuiiications 
are offiired, and for the better forwarding tha bu^ii<^ U> assign the 


order in which these oommunicBtions shall appear, and the amount of 
time which each shall occupy ; and it shall be the duty of the Chiur- 
man to enforce these decisions of the Committee. 

These Sectional Committees shall likewise recommend subjects for 
systematic investigation, by members williijg to undertake the researches, 
and present their results at the next Annual Meeting. 

The Committees shall likewise recommend Reports on particular to- 
pics and departments of science, to be drawn up as occasion permits, 
by competent persons, and presented at subsequent Annual Meetings. 


Rule 13. Whenever practicable, the proceedings shall be reported 
by professional reporters or stenographers, whose reports are to be re- 
vised by the Secretaries before they appear in print. 


Rule 14. The author of any paper or communication shall be at 
liberty to retain his right of property therein, provided he declares such 
to be his wish before presenting it to the Society. 


Rule 15. At least three evenings in the week shall be reserved for 
General Meetings of the Association, and the Standing Committee shall 
appoint these and any other General Meetings which the objects and 
interests of the Association may call for. 

These General Meetings may, when convened for that purpose, give 
their attention to any topics of science which would otherwise come be- 
fore the Sections, and thus all the Sections may, for a longer or shorter 
time, reunite themselves to hear and consider any communications, or 
transact any business. 

It shall be a part of the business of these General Meetings to re* 
ceive the Address of the President of the last Annual Meeting, to 
hear such reports on scientific subjects as, from their general importance 
aud interest, the Standing Committee shall select; also, to receive from 
the Chairmen of the Sections, abstracts of the proceedings of their re- 
spective Sections, and to listen to communications and lectures explana- 
tory of new and important discoveries and researches in science, and 
Dew inventions and processes in the arts. 



Ruts 16. The Association shall be organized bj the President of 
preceding Annual Meeting : the question of the most eligible distribu- 
tion of the Societj into Sections, shall then occupy the attention of the 
Association, when, a sufScient expression of opinion being procured, the 
meeting may adjourn, and the Standing Committee shall immediately 
proceed to divide the Association into Sections, and to allot to the Seo- 
tions their general places of meeting. The Sections may then organize 
by electing their officers, and proceed to transact scientific and other bu- 


Rule 1 1, The Standing Committee shall appoint a Local Committee 
from among members residing at or near the place of meetings for the 
ensuing year; and it shall be the duty of the Local Committee, assisted 
by the officers, to make arrangements for the meeting. 


RnuB 18. The amount of the Annual Subscription of eac^ member 
of the Association shall be one dollar, which shall entitle him to a copy 
of the proceedings of each meeting. The members attending an An- 
nual Meeting shall pay, on registering their names, an additional assess- 
ment of -^ dollars. These subscriptions to be received by the 

Treasurer or Secretary. 


Bulb 19. The Accounts of the Association shall be audited annu- 
ally, by Auditors appointed at each meeting. 


Rule 20. No Article of this Constitution fthall be altered or amea* 
ded without the concurrence of three fourths of the members present, 
nor unless notice of the proposed amendment or alteration shall have 
bem g^ven at the preceding Annual Meeting. 




Lamb, James, Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

Lane, ? Esq., Milledgeville, Ga. 

Lapham, Incr'se A., E9q.,Milwaukie,WiB. 
Lasel, Prof. Edw., Wilhamstown, Mass. 
Lawrence, Hon. Amos, Boston. 
Lawrence, Dr. Wm. Boston. 
Lawrence, Amos ^. Esq. Boston. 
Lea, I^ac, Esq., Philadelphia. 
Leavenworth, Dr. M. C, Watcrbury, Ct. 
Le Conte, Dr. John, L., New- York. 
LecoDte, Dr. Joseph, Macon, Ga. 
Leconte, Prof. John, Athens, Ga. 
♦Lederer, Baron Von, Washington, D.C. 
Lee, John C, Esq., Salem, Mass. 
Lee, Charles A., Esq., New- York. 
Leonard, Dr. Fred. B., Washington, N.Y. 
Leseane, Henry D. Eaq,, Charleston, S. G. 

Lesley, J. P. Esq., Milton, Mass. 
Lesley, Rev. Peter, Jr. Boston. 
Lettsom, W. J. Esq., Washington, D.C. 
Lewis, Robert C. Eieq., Shelbyville, Ky. 
Lieber, Dr. Francis, Columbia, S. C. 
Linck, Dr. Christian, Philadelphia. 
Lindsley, Dr. J. B., Nashville, Tenn. 
Linklaen, Ledy*rd, Esq., Cazenovia, N. Y. 
Lindsley, Rev. James H., Strafford, Ct 
Lischka, Emlie, Esq., Washington, D. C. 
Locke, J. H., Nashua, N. H. 
Logan, Wm. E., Esq., Montreal, Can. 
Loomis, Prof. Elias, New-York. 
Lovering, Prof. Jo& Cambridge, Mass. 
Lynch, Rev. Dr. Charleston, S. C. 
Lyell, Charles, Esq., London. 


Maffit, Lieut. J. N., U. S. N. 

Malone, ? Esq., Athens, Ga. 

Manigault, Edward, Esq., Charleston,S.C. 
Marsh, Dexter, Esq. Greenfield, Mass. 
Markoe, Francis, Jr., Esq., Wash'gton,D.C. 
Mason, Owen, Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Mathews, Gov. Jos. W., Jackson, Miss. 
Mather, Wm. W., Esq., Jackson C. H., 

Maury, Lieut. M. F., Washington, D. C. 
Mauran, Dr. J. Providence, R. I. 
Mantell, Reginald Neville, Esq., London, 

McCulloch, Prof. R. S., Princeton. N. J. 
McEwen, Dr. Thomas, Philadelphia. 
McKiNLET, Alexander, Philadelphia. 
McMurtrie, Dr. H. Philadelphia. 
McRae, John« Esq., Charleston, S. C. 
McKay, Pro£ C. F., Athens, Ga. 
Meigs, H., £>Bq. New- York. 
Melsheimer, Dr.F.E., Dover,York co.,Pa. 

Merrick, F. Esq., Athens, O. 
Metcalfe, Dr. S. L. Kentucky. 
Merrick, S. V. Esq., Philadelphia. 
Michel, Dr. M., Charleston, S. C. 
Michelotti, M. J. Turin, Piedmont, Italy. 
Mighels, Dr. J. W. Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Millington, Dr. Jno., Williamsburg, Va. 
Miller, H. B., Esq., New- York. 
Mitchell, Hon. Wm. Nantucket. 
Mitchell, Dr. J. K., Philadelphia. 
Mitchell, Prof. O. M., Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Mitchell, Prof. E., Chapel Hill, N. C. 
Morris, Rev. John G., Baltimore, Md. 
Morton, Dr. S. G., Philadelphia. 
Morris, O. W. Esq., New- York. 
Morris, Rev. R. Jackson, Miss. 
Moss, Theodore F., Esq. Philadelphia. 
Mutter, Dr. Thomas D., Philadelphia. 
Moultrie, Dr. J., Charleston, S. C. 
Moultrie, Dr. Wm. L., Charleston, S. C. 
Muzzey, John, Esq., Portland, Me. 


Newman, Dr. 1 Huntsville, Ala. 

Newton, Rev. E. H., Cambridge, N. Y. 
* Nicollet, J. N., Esq., Washington, D. C. 
Nichols, Dr. Andrew, Danvers, Mass. 


* Oakes, Wm., Esq., Ispwich, Mass. 
Ogier, Dr. T. L., Charleston, S. C. 
Olcott, Thomas W., Esq., Albany, N. Y. 
Oliver, J. D., Esq., Lynn, Mass. 
Olmsted, Lemuel G., Esq., New- York. 
Olmsted, Pro£ D., New-Haven, Ct., 
OUnsted, Chas. H., Esq., E. Hartford, Ct. 

Page, Dr. Chas. G., Washington, D. C. 
Parker, Charles, Esq., Cluirleston, S. C. 

Nichols, Prof. ? Schenectady, N. Y. 

Norwood, Dr. J. G., Madison, Indiana. 
Norton, Pro£ J. P., New-Haven. 
Nott, Dr. J. C, Mobile, Ala. 

* Olmsted, Dennison, Jr., Esq., N. Haven. 
Olney, Stephen P., Esq., Providence, R. I. 
Ordway, John M., £^., Roxbury, Mass. 
Oibom, A., Esq., Herkimer, N. Y. 
Owen, Hon. Rob. D., N. Harmony, Ind. 
Owen, Dr. David D., N. Harmony, Ind, 


I Percival, Dr. J. G. New^Haven, Ct 
I Phillips, John S., Esq., Philadelphia 


Sboond Day, Wednbsdat. Eyening Sessioa Proceedings. - 66 

On the PaloBozoic Rocks of Alabama; by P)ro£ M. Taomey. [Not re- 
ceived.] - - - - - - - 66 

On the peculiar sensations produced by a damp atmosphere ; by Dr. W. 
L. Jones. --------66 

OntheFo68aEquus;by Dr. Robert W.Gibbes. . - - 66 

Remarks on the preceding paper ; by F. S, Holmes, Esq. No fossil 
mammalian remains except cetacean, in the Eocene marl of Sa Oa. 68 

On the Northern Elephas, and on Mastodon augustidens; by Dr. R. W. 
Gibbes. - - -* 69 

On Fossils common to several Formations ; by Dr. R. W. Gibbes. - 71 

Remarks on the preceding paper by Prof. Agassiz and Pro! Tuomey ; the 
species common to two or more strata are very few. 71 

TaniD Day, Thubsdat. Morning Session. Prooeedii^ - - - 72 

On the air bladder of the Drum-fish, Ppgunias fisuciatus, and the mechan- 
ism by which the sound is produced ; by Dr. J. K Holbrook. [Not 
received. -------- 72 

Remarks on the preceding paper by Pro! Agftaajg ; development of air- 
bladders. -------- 72 

Remarks on the paper of Prof Tuomey, of yesterday, by Dr. E. Rave- 
nel and Lieut Maury ; importance of the coal fields of Alabama to 
the navigation and commerce of the Pacific. - - 7S 

Remarks on the paper of Dr. R W. Gibbes, of yesterday by Prof Agas- 
siz ; the species common to different formations are very few, mistakes 
in this respect attributable to geological error. - - - 78 

Exhibition of a fossil reptile belonging to the genus Leiodon ; by Prof 
Tuomey. --------74 

On the Currents of the Atlantic Ocean ; by lieut M. F. Maury. - 74 

Remarks on the preceding paper by Prof. Agassiz ; or the fancied im- 
portance of the name of the first describer of a species. - - 79 

OntheMarineFloraof the Atlantic ; by Prof W.H. Harvey. 79 

Tedld Dat, TmiBSDAT. Evening Session. Proceedings. - - - 80 

On the comparative reflecting power of the Planets, Mars, Jupiter and 
Saturn; by Prof Lewis R Gibbes. - - - - 80 

Distribution of the Foraminifene on the Coast of New-Jersey ; by F. de 
Pourtales. -------- 84 

Remarks on this paper, by Prof Agrmwig ; the aid rendered to Natural- 
ists, by the Coast Survey ------ 88 

On the order of Succession of parts in Foraminiferse ; by F. de Pourtales. 89 

On the Principles of Classification ; by Prof. Agassiz. 89 

FomtTH Dat, Friday. Morning Session. Proceedings. - - - 97 

On the American species of the genus Putorius ; by the Rev. Dr. Bach- 
maa [Not received] -..--- 97 

On the alleged subsidence of the Coast of South-Carolina, by Pro! 
Tuomey. [Not received.] - - - - - - 97 

Examination of the Physical History of the Jews, in its beariiigs on the 
questionof the Unity of the Races: by Dr. J. C. Nott 98 


Remarks of Prof. Agaesiz, after the reading of this paper ; zoological 

evidence for the diversity of the Races. .... 105 
Microscopic examination of the Pile of the Head of Albinos ; by P. A. 

Browne, Esq. ------- 108 

On an easy mode of illustrating the difference in the Velocity of Sound 

in Gases ; by Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes. - - - 115 

On the Morphology of the Medusie; by Prof Agassiz. - - 119 

Recent Progress of the Telegraph Operations of the United States 

Coast Survey ; by Prof. A. D. Bache. . . . . 122 

Fourth Day, Friday. Evening Session. Proceedings. - - - 126 

On the General Circulation of the Atmosphere ; by Lieut M F. Maury. 126 
Measurement of the Base Line on Edisto Island, S. C, by Pro£ A. D. 

Bache. -------- 147 

Account of three new American Meteorites, and geographical distribu- 
tion of such bodies generally ; by Prof C. U. Shepard. - - 147 
Fifth Dat, Saturday. Morning Sessioa Proceedings. - - - 158 
On the Structure of the Bones of Siren lacertina ; by Dr. Si Julien 

Ravenel. [Not received.] - - - - - - 158 

On a new species of Menobranchus, from South-Carolina; by Frot 

Lewis R Gibbes. ------- 159 

On the Recent Squalidse of the Coast of South-Carolina, and Catalogue of 

the Recent and Fossil Echinodermsof South-Carolina ; by Dr. Edmund 

Ravenel. -------- 159 

On the Cretaceous Formation of Alabama, and the Artesian Wells in 

that State ; by Prof. Tuomey. [Not received] - - - 161 

On the Resistance of Timber; by ILHaupt; Esq.' - - - 161 

On the Carcinological Collections ol the United States, and descriptions 

of new species, by Prof Lewis R Gibbes. - - - - 167 

On the Morphological Differences of Organs ; by Prof L. Agassiz. [Not 

received. -------- 2OI 

Meteorological and Mortuary Chart of New-Orleans, for 1849 ; by Dr. 

E. H. Bartoa ------- 201 

Observations on the Gedlogy of Ashley River, So. Ca., by F. S. Holmes, 

Esqr. -....--. 201 

Remarks on the preceding paper, by Prof Agassiz ; the large number 

of Mammalia in the Fossil Beds of South-Carolina. - - 204 

Proximate Composition of parts of Flowers of Plants, and of the Plants 

themselves , by Dr. J. H. Salisbury. - . - - 204 

On the Structure of the Halcycnoid Polypi ; by Prof Agassiz. - 207 

Closing Proceedings and Adjournment . - . . 2I8 


JFlrst Day^ Tuesday^ March 12, 1850. 

In accordance with a resolution of the Association, its Tliiid 
Meeting was held at Charleston, S. C, in the Hall of the Court of 
Equity, at 10 A. M., March 12, 1850. 

The President for the year. Prof. Hbnrt, being absent, on motion 
of Prof Aqassiz, the meeting was organized by calling Prof. Baohb, 
the President elect, to the Chair. The Secretary and Treasurer also 
being absent, on nomination by the local Committee, Prof Lewis B, 
GiBBBs was appointed Secretary, Dr. P. C. Gaillard Assistant Se- 
cretary, and Dr. St. Julien Ravsnbl, Treasurer. 

The Association then proceeded to the election of additional mem- 
bers for completing the Standing Committee, under the Seventh 
Rule, and, on motion, it was resolved to elect three to-day and three 
to-morrow. Dr. A. A. Gould, Dr. J. E. Holbrook, and Rev. Dr. 
Bachman, were elected. 

Lieut. Maurt moved that the division of the Association into 
sections be postponed until to-morrow, which motion was adopted. 

The Association took a short recess to enable the Standing Comr 
mittee to transact business. 

At a quarter past 12, the Association re-assembled. Prof Bachb 
in the Chair, and received the Report of the Standing Committee. 

They recommended that gentlemen presenting papers from ab- 
sent members, be requested to give abstracts of those papers, and 
that those sent to the Local Committee be referred to Spedal 
Committees fox the like purpose. 

The following gentlemen, nommated by the Standing Committee^ 
were elected Members of the Association : 


Cfen. W, niorapson, Greenville, S. C; Dr. Wm. L. Jones, Aliens, 
Geo. ; R. Yeadon, Esq., Dr. F. M. Robertson, Charleston ; Dr. Gib- 
bon, Charlotte, N. C, ; Hon. Mitchell King, Professor E. Geddings, 
Charleston ; Dr. Wm. L. Moultrie, Charleaton ; Prof. H. R. Frost, 
Prof. Thoa. Prioleau, Charleston; Prof. John Bellinger, Charleston; 
Dr. F. P. Porcher, Charleston ; Dr. D. J. Cain, Charleaton ; Dr. T. 
h. Burden, Charleaton ; Dr. E, Horlbeck, Charleston ; H, Ravenel, 
Esq., Charleston District ; Lieut. Kurtz, U. S. A. ; 0. O. Boutelle, 
Esq., Coast Survey ; C. Zimmerman, Esq., Columbia, S. C. ; Dr. T. 
L. Ogier, Charleston; Dr. Jersey, Charleston-, Dr. Wra^, Charles- 
ton; Pres. W. P. Finley, Charleston; Dr. Jos, Johnson, Oiarlestoa; 
J. Johnson, Esq., Charleston ; £. B. White, Esq.,* Charleston ; Edwd. 
Jones, Esq., Charleston; Rev. Dr. Wightman, Charleston; Dr. 
Mathew A. Ward, Athens, Geo. ; Prof. C. F. McKay, Athens, Geo. ; 
Prof. Harvey, Dublin University ; Dr. Sandford Barker, Rev, G, C 
8hepard, Charleston ; Prof, Poicher, Charleston ; Rev. Dr. Sommcts, 
Ogden Hammond, £^-, Professor Hawkesworth, Charleston; Dr. 
H. W. DeSausaure, Charleston ; Capt, Parker, Charleston ; H. A. 
DeSaussure, Esq., Charleston ; Dr. Saml. Wilson, Charleston.^ 

The programme for the day being announced, the first paper was 

A Calaloffite of the Natural Orders of Plants, inkdbiting the vicinity 
of the Santee Canal, S. C, as repretented by genera and gpecies; 
with observations on the meteorological and topographical conditioiti 
of that section of Country ; hy H. W. Ravkkbl. 

Thb subjects of the "Get^raphy of Plants," and of their distri- 
bution over the surface of the earth, are matters of interest, not onlj 
to those who are specially engaged in botanical investigations, but 
also to the geologist, and all others who are interested in the obserra' 
tion of natural phenomena, and of the laws which govern them. 

In this country, vast in territorial extent, and containing within her 
limits every phase of vegetation, from the dwarfish Alpine gronlh 
to the exuberant development of tropical life, time must necessarily 
be required for collecting 
extensive region, and for i 
and geological conditions « 
the laws which govern theii 
" Geography of Plants" take 


Where the field of labor is so great, and the labourers few, attention 
has been hitherto confined rather to descriptive Botany — ^the determi- 
nation and description of genera and species. This must necessarily 
be the first operation — the groundwork upon which any superstructure 
is to be raised. And, as in other departments of knowledge, so it is 
here ; as we ascend from the special to the general, from the study of 
local and isolated forms, to an investigation of the laws which govern 
and influence their distribution over the earth, we need the aid of 
other and kindred departments of science to elucidate those causes, 
and to bring under the government of harmonious and universal laws, 
what would otherwise present only the appearance of discord and 

Among the most obvious conditions which are supposed to affect 
vegetation, may be mentioned, mean annual, mean winter, and mean 
summer temperature, elevation above, and proximity to the ocean, 
humidity of the atmosphere, mean annual amount of rain, and the 
geological structure of the surface. 

Although the time has scarcely arrived when we can collect a suffi- 
cient amount of statistical information upon these various subjects, to 
enable us to determine the isothermal, hygrometrical, and geological 
relations of distant portions of our country, assistance may be ren- 
dered to future investigators by recording the observations made in 
certain regions, and thus adding one link in the chain of testimony, 
which may be useful for future operations. 

As an humble contribution towards this object, I offer to the 
Association the following paper upon the Flora of a particular locality, 
accompanied by a short sketch of the climatic, meteorological, and 
geological condition which may be likely to influence the growth and 
distribution of vegetable life. 

The section of country to which I allude is in the vicinity of the 
Santee Canal, St. John's (Berkley) Parish, S. C. The plants have 
been collected mostly in the neighbourhood of Black Oak, and between 
that place and Cooper River, eight or ten miles South. My excursions 
have occasionally led me as far as the Santee Swamp, ten or twelve 
miles North, and some few in my catalogue have been found only at 
Eutaw Springs, twenty miles North-West. Probably nineteen- 
twentieths of the Phaenogamous plants have been found within the 
first named limits, and with very few exceptions, all the Cryptogamia. 

Latitude, about SS"". 15^, North. 

Abstract of a Meteorological Journal kept by me for the four years 




Mean Winter temperature, 51^49 

Mean Summer temperature, .... 77^^38 

Mean Aimual temperature, 64^^ 

Max. temperature of four years, . 92*^00 

Min. temperature of four years, 15*^00 

Mean amiual range of barometer, 1.02 

Mean amount of rain iu Winter, in inches, . 4.41 

Mean amount of rain in Summer, in inches, 16.04 

Mean ammal amount, in inches, 33.89 

Prevailing winds in Winter, . . . . N. W. 
Prevailing winds in Summer, . . T S. W. 

The thermometer used is Fahrenheit's, suspended in the open air, but 
out of the influence of reflected heat in the day, or of direct radiation 
at night. 

I have kept no hygrometrical journal, and cannot therefore furnish 
any accurate data, but the presence of the long moss, (Tillandsia us- 
neoides) and Epidendrum conopseum, and a great pro^sion of Amgous 
life, indicate a humid atmosphere. 

Distance from the Atlantic, thirty to thirty five miles North- 
West. Easterly winds are always damp and chilly to the feelings in 
Winter, and generally bring rain for two or three days as they con- 

Elevation above the level of the sea, very moderate, not precisely 

Surface of the country generally flat and level, and with but little 
fall in the water courses. 

Beneath the tertiary drift which covers the surface, eocene fossil 
limestone is found at varying depths, sometimes cropping out, and 
seldom deeper than six to eight feet, except in the pine barrens, 
which form the table lands and dividing ridges of diflerent streams. 
Although limestone is so near the surface, calcareous earth is never 
found in our soils, except those in immediate proximity with out- 
cropping strata, or when it has been spread over the surface for a 
manure. In eighteen specimens of soils which I have examined, taken 
from diflerent localities in the neighbourhood, I have not detected 
any trace of eflervescence, when treated with a mineral acid. 

A conspicuous feature in the topography of this region, is the number 
of laige springs breaking out from Assures in the subterranean 


These form perpetually running streams, and from- the proximity 
of the impervious stratum to the surface on the level grounds, large 
swamps of black alluvial mould, border their courses, covered, in the 
virgin state, with the large cypress (Taxodium distichum) water-oaks, 
ash, maple, and willow, (Salix nigra.) These streams are tributaries 
of Cooper river. On the highlands bordering these swamps, (where 
the best cotton lands are found) hickories, dog-wood, (Comus florida) 
oaks, 6sc., constitute the principal vegetation. The pine barrens, 
which form the table lands between contiguous water courses; and, 
of course, the most highly elevated, when the surface is Undulating, 
are dry, warm, and sandy — ^the long leaved pine, (P. palustris) and 
some of the scrub oaks, (Q. catesbaei, and Q. nigra) constituting the 
forest growth. As the surface becomes more level, and the rain- 
water finds no means of escape, the soil becomes cold apd wet, the 
pinus serotina takes the place of the other, and the vegetation 
becomes altogether different. Pinus glaber, Myrica caroliniensis, and 
various species of Andropogon, cover the surface, whilst the red bay, 
(Grordonia lasianthus) Magnolia glauca, and Smilax lanceolata, form in 
the lower places almost impenetrable thickets. 

I will here simply add the names of the orders of plants, with the 
genera and the number of species representing each order: 












'' Clematis, 


•• Hepatica, 

I Ranunculus, 


j Magnolia, 
( Liriodendron, 


j Cocculus, 

( Menispermum, 





j Nymphsea, 
( Nuphkr, 


j Argemone, 
( Sanguinaria, 


















r Nasturtium, 































[ Elodea, 








Cartophyllacb^, ^ 





























" Modiola, 








MBLIACBiE, (ex.) 




















j Berchemia, 
( Ceanothus, 


































' Prunus, 



















j Ammannia, 
\ Lythrum, 
























j Hamamelis, 





( Lonicera, 
} Sambucus, 
( Viburnum, 






^ Polypremum, 











































































CoMPosiTiE, (con.) 










( Sonchus, 



^ Vaccinium, 


j Utricularia, 
( Pinguicularia, 

" Lysimachia, 

^ Samolus, 

I Prinos, 

( Diospyros, 
i Styrax, 
( Hopea, 



( Fraxinus, 


( Chionanthus, 

















, Orders. 















' Sabbatia, 































^ CJuscuta, 




. 1 






• Linaria, 







































( Elytraria, 



1 Ruellia, 


[ Rhytiglossa, 







w or ms 














( Verbena, 
•< CalHcaipa, 








< Prunella, 








( Solanum, 
} Datura, 
( Physalis, 

( Asarum, 
( Aristolochia, 

j Chenopodium, 
( Acnida, 

j Amaranthus, 
( Achyranthes, 

j Polygonum, 
I Kumex, 




( Ulmus, 
( Celtis, 



H Croton, 
I Crotonopsis, 
















voB TBS AovvUKHuaurr OF acoBNoa. 



EuPHORBIACEiB, (con.) 












( Styllingia, 
i Phyllanthus, 
( Acalypha, 

j Juglans, 
"I Carya,* 

( Quercus, 
} Fagus, 
( Castanea, 


( Betula, 
i Carpinus, 
( Alnus, 

] Salix, 
"I Populus, 




( Pinus, 
} Taxodium, 
( Juniperus, 


^ Peltandra, 

j Lemna, 
( Spirodelia, 

( Typha, 

] Sparganium, 

j Potamogeton, 
( Najas, 


( Habenaria, 
\ Epidendrum,f 
( Cranichis, 




















* In the genus Carya, there is an interesting re-disoovery of Michauz's l<»iglo8t 
0. myristicaeformis, found growing in our deep uncleared swamps, and attaining a 
height of from forty to fifty feet 

f Efidendrum. — ^This is probably the extreme northern limit of this orchidaceoos 
parasite — ^interesting as being the only representation in this country, of a fiunily 
of plants, which prevail very extensively in tropical regions. 




Orchid ACE^, (oon.) 





















^ Listera, 





I Sisyrinchium, 

^Amaryllis, . 


^ Pancratium, 


-< Smilacina, 
^ Uvularia, 

^ Nothoscordium, 




^ Zygadenus, 

( Juncus, 
( Luzula, 

j Commelyna, 
( Tradescantia, 


( Eriocaulon, 
i Paepalanthus, 
( Lachnocaulon, 

/" T ;i 














































J 5 

^ Carex, 

' 2 


" Leersia, 

























• 1 












Gramikbje, (con.) 








^ AzoUa, 


Musci, ) 




Recapitulation of PhcmogamouB Plants, 

Obders. Genera. 

124 474 

Of Cryptogamous Plants, 
7 about 



























As the above paper is intended to exhibit all the conditions which 
are supposed to affect vegetation, and also the amount and diversity 
of forms which may be found in a given locality, it is proper to state 


that of the Phienogamous division, nearly all the species which exist 
here are enumerated. Mj search has been dDigent, and those yet 
undetected are probably very few. Of Cryptogamia, most of the 
mosses, hepatics and lichens have also been collected. Among 
algse, there are probably many of the smaller forms still undetected. 

Although my attention has been chiefly directed for the last three 
years to the collection and examination of the fungi, I cannot doubt^ 
from the ease with which new forms are continually added to my 
collection — the great number of different species which spring up 
in the same locality in diflerent seasons, (their growth and propagation 
influenced so much by meteoric changes,)— that the present number 
may, in the course of time, be very easily doubled. 

A lai^e portion of the Cryptogamia of my collection are still 
undetermined ; and, therefore, without giving the genera, I can only 
approximate to the number of species under each order. 

The second paper, 

On the numeric combinations of the rings in the formation of the 
regions of the body of Crtistacea ; by Professor Aoassiz. 

[Not received.] 
The third. 

On the inflttence arising from the discovery of the Qulf Stream 
upon the commerce of Charleston ; by Lieut. M. F. Maurt. 

Lieut. Maurt said, that before the Gulf Stream was known to 
practical navigators, the course of trade between England and Ame- 
rica was such as to make Charleston the half-way house between the 
mother country and the New-England States, including Pennsylva 
nia and New- York. 

At that time, the usual route of vessels bound to America, was to 
run down on the other side towards the Cape de Verdes, and until 
they got the N. E. trades, and with them to steer for America. This 
route brought them upon the Coast of the Southern States, where 
their first landfall was generally made. Then steering to the north- 
ward, they drifted along until they made the Capes of the Delaware, 
or other headlands to the North. 

If now, as it often happened in the winter season, they were dri- 


yen off the coast by snow storms and westerly gales, instead of 
running off into the Gulf stream, as vessels now do to thaw them- 
selves, they stood back to Charleston, or the West Indies, where 
they would spend the winter, and wait until the spring before ma- 
king another attempt. 

It should be borne in mind that vessels then were not the sea 
boats, or the sailers they now are. Lieut. Maubt had the Log-book 
of a West India trader in 1746. Her average rate of sailing per 
log, was about one mile the hour. 

The instruments of navigation were rude, chronometers were m- 
known, and lunars were impracticable, and it was no uncommon 
thing for vessels in those days, when crossing the Atlantic, to be out 
of their reckoning 5°, 6°, and even 10°. And when it was announced 
that a vessel might know by consulting the water thermometer, 
when she crossed the eastern edge of the Gulf stream, and agaiii 
when she crossed the western edge, navigators likened the discovery 
to the drawing of blue and red streaks in the water, by which, when 
the mariner crossed, then he might know his longitude. 

The merchants of Providence, R. I., Dr. Ebanklik being in Lon- 
don, sent a petition to the Lords of the Treasury, asking that the 
Falmouth packets might run to Providence instead of to Boston; 
they maintained that though Boston and Falmouth were between 
Providence and London, yet that practically the two former were 
further apart, for they shewed that the average passage of the Lon- 
don traders to Providence, was fourteen days less than the packet 
line from Falmouth to Boston. 

Dr. Franklin, on being questioned a^ to this fact, consulted an 
old New-England Captaia, who had been a whaler, and who informed 
the Doctor that the London traders to Providence were commanded 
for the most part by New-England fishermen, who knew how to 
avoid the Gulf stream, while the Falmouth packets were commanded 
by Englishmen who knew nothing about it. 

These two drew a chart, which was published at the Tower, and 
the Gulf stream, as laid dovm there by that Yankee whaler, has 
been preserved upon our charts until within a few years. 

At the time that Dr. Franklin made it known how navigators, 
simply by dipping a thermometer in the water, might know when 
they entered, and when they cleared the Gulf stream, Charleston 
had more commerce than New-York, and all the New-England States 
put together. 


This discovery changed the route across the Atlantic, shortened 
the passage from sixty to thirty days coming this way, and, conse- 
quently, changed the course of trade also. 

Instead of calling by Charleston as they came from England, ves- 
sels went direct to the port of their destination ; instead of running 
down to Charleston to avoid a New-England snow storm, they stood 
off for a few hours, until they reached the tepid waters of the Gulf 
stream, in the genial warmth of which the crew recovered their 
frosted energies, and as soon as the gale abated, they were ready 
for another attempt to make their haven. 

In this way the northern ports became the half way house, and 
Charleston an outside station. 

This revolution in the course of trade commenced about 1795. It 
worked slowly at first, but in 1816-17, it received a fresh impulse 
from Jbrbmiah Thompson, Isaac Wright, and others, who conceived 
the idea of establishing a line of packets between New-York and 
Liverpool. This was at a period when the scales of commercial as- 
cendancy was vibrating between New-York, Boston, Philadelphia, 
and other places. The packet ships of the staid New-York quaker 
turned the balance. Though only of 300 tons burden, and sailing 
but once a month, they had their regular day of departure, and the 
merchants of Charleston, Philadelphia, etc., found it convenient to 
avail themselves of this regular and stated channel, for communica- 
ting with their agents in England, ordering goods, etc. Those packets 
went on increasing in numbers and size until now ; at the present 
day we have them buUding of 2000 tons, sailing every day, and 
running between New- York and every fifth-rate sea-port town in the 
United States, and to many foreign ports. 

Thus an impulse was given to the prosperity of New-York ; one 
enterprize begat another, until that city became the great commer- 
cial emporium and centre of exchange of the new world ; and all 
these results are traceable to the use of the water-thermometer at sea. 

Other causes, doubtless, have operated to take away from Charles- 
ton her relative commercial importance — ^but the primary cause 
was that discovery which removed Charleston from the way-side of 
commerce with Europe, and which placed her on the out-skirts of the 
great commercial thoroughfares, and away from the situation which 
she occupied. 

In consequence of the improvement since mad6 in navigation, ship 
building, etc., Lieut. Maury remarked that a ship could now go from 


New-York to England, and back in less time than when Charleston 
was the half-way house, she could get to Charleston from London. 

He therefore submitted whether this fact were not sufRcient to 
turn the scales of commerce, and he claimed the fact to be due to the 
influence of the Gulf stream upon the course of trade, and the wa- 
ter-thermometer was the key to it all. 

The fourth paper, was entitled 

Observations on a remarkable exudation of Ice from the Stems oj 
Vegetables^ and on a singular protrusion of Icy columns from cer- 
tain kinds of Earth during frosty weather ; by John Le Conte, 
M.D., Professor of Natural Philosophy and Chemistry^ in the 
University of Georgia^ 

It is certainly a remarkable circumstance, that phenomena so 
striking as those fonning the subject of this paper, have received so 
little attention from philosophers ; and it is, perhaps, still more sin- 
gular, that, hitherto, no attempts have been made at their explanation. 
Stephen Elliott, in his "Sketch of the Botany of South-Carolina 
and Georgia," published in 1824, notices a remarkable protrusion of 
crystaline fibres of ice from the stems of the Conyza bifi'ons, (Vol. 
2. p. 322.) Sir John F. W. Herschel published a short notice of 
a similar exudation of icy fringes occurring around thistle-stalks, and 
stumps of heliotropes, in the London and Edinburgh Philosophical 
Magazine, for 1833, p. 110, (3d Series, vol. 2, p. 110.) Professor 
S. P. RioAUD, of Oxford, notices the occurrence of an analogous 
phenomenon on a recently built stone wall, in the succeeding number 
of the same journal, (3d Series, vol. 2, p. 190-1833.) As far as my 
researches extend, the above-mentioned notices — ^all of them very 
brief and imperfect— embrace all the observations hitherto made on 
these remarkable phenomena. Even the natural speculative tendency 
has been held in check by the extreme paucity of facts and observations ; 
so that no explanation of them has been advanced. 

For many years, my attention has been drawn to the remarkable 
deposition of ice around the stalks of certain plants, as well as to 
analagous phenomena exhibited by certain kinds of soil. During 
a visit to the sea-coast of Geoi^a, in the months of November and 
December, 1848, 1 had a very favorable opportunity of studying the 
phenomena as exhibited in vegetables. The plants in which I have 


observed it, are two species of the genus Fluchea of Decaiulolle, or 
Conyza of the older botanists, viz : Fluchea hifron^^ and P. camphO' 
rata. It is more common and conspicuous in the former species than 
the latter. Both of these plants grow abundantly in wet soils, around 
ponds, and along the road-side ditches, in the low country of Carolina 
and Georgia. The root is perennial, but the stem is annual and 

The exudations of ice are most abundant and striking during the 
first clear frosty weather in November and December. At this period 
the earth is warm, and the serenity of the atmosphere is so &vorable 
to radiation, that there is a remarkable difference between the 
temperature of the day and night. When the .temperature sinks, 
towards daylight, to about 30° or 28*^ of Fahrenheit, or even lower, 
the sur&ce of the ground is totally devoid of the slightest incrusting 
film of frozen earth, while hoar-frost is deposited in such profusion 
on all dead vegetable matter, as to resemble a slight fall of snow. 
IJnder such circumstances, the traveller who passes along the level 
roads of this region soon afler sunrise, cannot fail to be struck with 
the remarkable accumulations of voluminous friable masses of semi- 
pellucid ice around the foot-stalks of the Pluchea^ which grow along 
the road-side ditches. At a distance they present an appearance 
resembling locks of cotton-wool, varying from four to five inches in 
diameter, placed around the roots of the plants ; and when nimierous, 
the effect is striking and beautiful. 

In relation to the exudation of ice from the stems of vegetables, 
the description and delineation given by Sir John Herschel are so 
clear and faithful, and accord so exactly with the results of my own 
observations, that I prefer using the language of that justly distinguished 
philosopher, whenever it suits my purpose. The engraving which 
accompanies his paper represents the appearance presented very 
accurately. My observations appear to establish the following &cts 
in relation to this phenomenon : 

1. The depositions of ice are entirely confined to the immediate 
neighborhood of the roots of the plants, the upper parts of the tall 
unbroken stalks being quite free from them. They frequently 
commence two or three inches from the ground, and extend from 
three to four inches along the axis of the stem. {Fig, A,) It is 
proper to state that, at this season, the stalks are dead, and quite dry 
to within about six inches of the earth, below which they are generally 
green and succulent. The plant has a large and porous pith, which 


Is always satorated -witb moisttire, as high as six or seven inches frota 
the base of the stem. 

2. The ice emanates in 
a kind of riband, or trill- 
sh^»ed wayy friable se- 
mi-pelludd excrescence, 
"as if protruded in a 
soft state from the stem, 
from longitudinal fissures 
in its Bidea," {Fiff. B.) 
As Sir John Hbrschxl 
remarks, "HieBtructure 
of the ribands is fibrous, 
like that of the fibrous 
variety of gypsum, pre- 
senting a glassy ^ky 
wavy surface; the direc- 
tion of the fibres beingat 
right angles to the stem, 
or horrizoQtal." Accont- 
ing to my observations, 
the number of ribands vary from one to five. All of them issue 
from the stem in vertical or longitudinal 
lines, wluch are not always symmetrically 

I disposed around the axis. Judging from the 
the engraving given by Sir Jons Hbrschbl, 
the Pluchea exhibits the phenomenon mudi 
more conspicuously and beautifully than the 
I stumps of heliotropes observed by him. ] 
r have frequently observed the icy excres- 
cences to exceed five inches in length; and 
when thus elongated, they are usually curled ; 
ofl^i 90 much 90 as to bring the remote ex- 
tremity of the frill nearly in contact with 
its line of attachment to the stalk. 
3. "Although," as Sir John Hebschel correctly observes, "the 
ley sheets appeared to have been protruded from the interior of the 
stem, yet, on examination, they were found to terminate sharply at 
its surface, adhering to it so lightly as to render it impossible to handle 


a e^pecimen without detaehizig them, aad in no inBtance coimeeted with 
any fonnation of ice within ; on the contrary, the majority of the 
stems were sound and solid, and many of them still green when oat. 
The point of attachment of the ice was, however, always on the 
surface of the wood^ beneath the outer bark or epidermis, which the 
frozen sheets had, in every instance, stripped off, and forced out to a 
distance. Where the fringes were large and well developed, the bark 
bad quite fallen off; but in those cases where it adhered more strongly, 

it seemed to have prevented their free 
expansion; and in such instances the 
stem presented the singular appearance 
of a thick massive coating of ice inter* 
posed between the wood and its in- 
tegument, which was swollen and rift^ 
ed." {Fig, 0.) To the foregoing very 
accurate description, I have only to 
add, that according to my observations 
on the Pluchea, when the frost is quite 
severe, the icy sheets were often "con- 
nected with the formation of ice with- 
in," in fact, were continuous with the 
frozen pith; but under such circum- 
stances, the wood was always rifted 
longitudinally, and the process of pro- 
trusion seemed to have been complete^ 
ly checked at the part of the stem in which this took place. Indeed, 
the phenomenon was seldom exhibited in its most perfect and beau- 
tiful form, when the wood was split. It is obvious, therefore, that 
in these instances, the frigorific action was too intense to permit the 
phenomena to be developed in a normal manner. 

4. The phenomenon took place in the same plant, during several 
■consecutive nights ; and when the wood was not rifted, frequently 
from the same portion of the stalk. When the wood wa^ split, 
however, the deposition of ice occurred lower down the stem, at a 
part which was unaffected by the frost of the previous night. {Fip. A.) 
The stalks thus became completely rifted by a succession of severe 
nights, from the height of six or seven inches down to the ground. 
This is unquestionably one of the reasons why these exudations of 
ice are seldom observed after the middle of winter, for the stalks 
are usually destroyed before this period. 

24 PROosBDnroB of thb amxrioan absooiation 

5. The stems which had beea cut off within three or four inches of 
the ground, exhibited the phenomenon as conspicuously as those 
which were left untouched. The icy sheets never issued from the evi 
mtrface, but always from longitudinal lines^ commencing somewhat 
below it, and extending towards the root. {Mg, £.) Plants which 
were torn up and transplanted in a vase of moist earth, in a flower- 
garden, exhibited the same phenomenon, although much less strikingly 
than when left in situ. 

''The appearances above described," to use the language of Sir 
John Herschel, '' are quite at variance with any idea of the deposition 
of these icy fringes from the store of aqueous vapor in the general 
atmosphere, in the manner of hoar-frost; and the only quarter to 
which we can look for their origin is in the plant itself, or in the 
comparatively warm earth beneath, to whose exhalations the decaying 
stems may form a kind of chimney." • 

The additional facts which my observations establish — ^particularly 
in relation to the recurrence of the phenomenon on the same portion 
of the stalk during several successive frosts, even after it had been 
cut ofl^appear to be irreconcilable with the idea that the physiological 
functions of the plant have any share in the production of it. We 
must, therefore, look to the moist earth for the large supply of water 
necessary for the development of these voluminous masses of ice. But 
by what force, and through what agency is it elevated and protruded? 

Impressed with the idea that the phenomenon is purely physical— 
having no connection with the vitality of the stem; it seemed 
reasonable, that the remarkable exudation of icy columns from certain 
kinds of earth, which long attracted my attention, might be referred 
to a similar cause. Considerations of this character induced me to 
study the latter phenomenon more carefully. During the winters of 
1848-49, and 1849-50, abundant opportunities occurred of examining 
the phenomenon, under the most diversified circumstances ; the soil 
in this neighborhood* being peculiarly adapted to its development. 

The following facts seem to be established by my observations: 

1. The phenomenon occurs most strikingly when a warm rainy 
period terminates in clear freezing weather, with the wind from the 
West or North-West. It is more or less distinctly developed at all 
temperatures below 30° Fahrenheit. When, however, the thermometer 
was as high as this at sunrise, it was exhibited only in situations most 
favorable to radiation. It frequently appears during several consecutive 

* Athens, Ga. 


nights after a rain, but usually, when the temperature remains nearly 
oonstant^with deor^aang conspicuousuesa This obviously arises 
from the diminution of moisture : in situations which are persistently 
wet, it is always developed in proportion to the depression of 

2. It takes place in soils that are rather firm, but not very compact. 
For example: the phenomenon is beautifully exhibited along the 
sides of the water worn ravines, which fiirrow the declivities of the 
firm red day-hills, of this primitive region, as well as along the cuts 
or ditches by the road-side. This clay seems to be formed by the 
decomposition, in situ, of homblendic gneiss and mica-schist. This 
soil presents the same phenomenon when thrown up and lying on the 
surface, provided it is not trodden down and rendered too compact. 
For this reason it never appears on the well-beaten highways, although 
it is seen abundantly along their margins. The influence of compactness 
of soil, is strikingly illustrated by the fact, that the protrusion of the 
icy columns will frequently occur around the margins and along the 
middle cleft of a track of a cloven-footed animal, while none were 
found on the portions where the clay had undergone compression. 
The clods found at the bottom of the ravines and along the margins 
of the brooks, generally afford beautiful manifestations of the phe- 
nomenon, under proper circumstances. It is seldom, if ever, ob- 
served in rich mellow alluvial soils abounding in vegetable matter. 

3. The general appearance of the phenomenon is that of a vast 
number of filaments of ice, forming in their aggregation fibrous 
columns resembling bundles of spun glass, emanating at right angles 
to the surface, as if protruded in a semi-fluid state from an infinitude 
of capillary tubes in the ground. The structure of the columns is 
distinctly fibrous, presenting a fine silky, wavy, silvery surface, 
analogous to that of the fibrous variety of gypsum. They exhibit 
various degrees of diaphaneity, apparently depending on the purity 
of the water, as well as on the state of aggregation of the icy filaments ; 
being in some situations almost perfectly transparent, and in others 
scarcely semi-pellucid. Sometimes the fibres composing the columns 
are readily separable, — at other times, they are, as it were, fused 
together. When examined by transmitted light, transverse strioe are 
observed to cross tfie filaments at intervals varying from one-tenth 
to one-thirtieth of an inch. A thin stratum or cruglof loose frozen 
earth is frequently detached and elevated on the summits of the 
columns, often forming a continuous roof-like covering to the soil 

n PBocmmnffoa ov tbe iMBUOAai amooiation 

beneadi, extoDdifig over many square yards: at other times appesrmg 
in separate and isolated fiat caps of Tariabk skse. The (x^umns are 
not always mufonnly distribated over the sur&ee of t^ ground, l»it 
fineqaently exhibit considerable intervals of unfrozen soil between 
them. When the exudation takes place around the maj^ins of a 
dicamfleribed d^ressicm containing water — like that left by the ^t 
ai a horse — ^it appears to draw up the water from the cavity, leaving 
an interior grotto lined with &ntastic groups of icicles. 

The icy columns vary in length, from one to three, four, and ev^i 
is^& indies, according to the favorableness of the situation, and tha 
iBtensity of the cold. They vary in size, from mere threads to 
prismatic bundles of one-fourth of an inch in diameter. When very 
long, they frequently fall over by their gravity, presetting a beautifid 
appearance when viewed in masses. The effect produced by walking 
over a surface on which the phenomenon is weU-developed is very 
Striking. The superior crust of frozen earth, and its supporting icy 
columns give way under the £x)t, which thereby sinks several inches 
below the apparent surface at every step. When the phenomeion 
occurs along the precipitous sides of the ravines and road-side cuts^ 
the earth which has been elevated falls down to the bottom of the 
inclined plane as soon as the sun takes effect, leaving a fresh surface 
of soil exposed to the next frost; and as this exfoliation continues 
from night to night, when the weather is sufficiently cold, while all 
the earthy matter which is thus thrown down, is carried off by the 
first considerable fall of rain, it is sufficiently obvious that it is a 
powerftil ^ent of disintegration. When the weather is not severe, 
it is only exhibited in situations most favorable to the production of 
cold. The presence of a twig or a straw on the surface of the clay, 
will, under these circumstances, determine the place of development 
of the phenomenon ; and a twig will thereby be elevated above the 
general surface, supported by an elegant pectinated arrangement of 
icy columns. 

4. On examination, the icy columns were found to terminate sharply 
at the surface of the clay, adhering so lightly as to be detached by a 
mere touch of the finger, and scarcely ever connected with any forma- 
tion of ice below, in fact Tiever^ under the circumstances most favorable 
to the development of the phenomenon. On the contrary, in the 
majority of caiflfe, the soil from which they protruded was not frozen 
in the slightest degree, even during our severest weather, and wh^i 
the earth in other situations was completely intrusted. This pcnnt 

FOB TBS A]»vAKOBMBiiT or Bonafcx. 27 

wae carefully examined, early in the morning, on the 11th of Jik 
nuary, 1849, when the thermometer was at 14^ of Fahrenheit, 
at smirise, again on the 17th of February, when it was 12% 
and again on the 19th of the same month, when it stood as low as 
5° — a most extraordinary degree of cold for this latitude — (34 North 
Lat.) These observations were carefully repeated on the mornings 
of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th of February, 1850, when the tempera- 
ture was respectively 16% 14% 18% and 23*^ of Fahrenheit's scale, at 
sunrise. On notie of these occasions was the ground — ^where the icy 
ccdumns were developed in provision— ;^02;en in the slightest degree. 
The afternoon of February 4th, 1850, afforded me the rare opportu* 
nity of observing the phenomenon in the very act of development* 
It took place on an eastern exposure, at 5 1-2 P. M., when the tem* 
perature was 28% Fahrenheit. As the day was very cold, the icy 
columns of the previous night — ^which were about three inches in 
length — ^had been only partially melted, in this protected situation, 
by the influence of the mid-day sun. At the time the observation 
was made, these columns were found to be elevated about one inch, 
by the recently protroded ice. The line of demarkation between the 
old and new ice-formation was perfectly distinct ; the lower portions 
of the jfbrmer having been remarkably attenuated by the process of 
liquefaction during the heat of the day. In this case it was obvious^ 
that the evolution of the phenomenon during the previous night and 
morning, had been temporarily checked by the solar heat, but was 
resumed as soon as that influence was withdrawn. The state of the 
soil was careMly examined; for it seemed to be almost certain, that 
the process of formation must have been going on, imder the eye, at 
the time that the observations were made. The subjacent clay was 
found to be moist and imfrozen, the icy columns separated from it 
with the slightest touch, and were not connected with any formation 
of ice below. As already intimated, in less favorable situations, 
when the frigorific action was intense, the soil on which the colunms 
rested, sometimes became incrusted with ice, after the protrusion had 
commenced; but this was invariably attended with a complete 
arrestation of the process : indeed under such circumstances it was 
obvious that there had been an imperfect development of the phe- 
nomenon. In these cases, a stratum of frozen earth was found ad- 
hering to the base of the columns, while continuous icy threads were 
observed to transpierce this crust perpendicularly, and occasionally 
to extend into minute apertures in the unfrozen soil beneath it. As 


already remarked, in more favourable situations, the ground beneath 
was never frozen ; but on cautiously removing the icy columns, the 
moist clay was found to present a very porous appearance, as if 
perforated by a multitude of holes or spirades, corresponding in 
position with the bundles of thread-like ice ^ and which were j&equently 
of sufficient size to be quite obvious to the unassisted eye. 

Having thus described, with sufficient fullness, the phenomenon 
attending the occurrence of exudations of icy fringes from the stems 
of plants, as well as the protrusion of colunms of ice from certain 
soils, we are now prepared to offer something in explanation of them — 
and to attempt to rise from the mass of detaQs to the eatues which 
have given birth to these remarkable appearances. A care^ exami- 
nation and collation of the two series of facts above-recorded, develop 
so many strong points of analogy, that it is almost impossible to 
resist the conviction that both of the phenomena must be referred to 
the same cause. If we admit an identity of cause in the two cases, 
it is obvious that it must be ^nrelj physical ; since that which relates 
to the production of the phenomenon on certain kinds of earth, is 
necessarily physical. In the remarks which follow, therefore, I shall 
treat the question as one of physics, and shall apply them more 
particularly to the phenomenon exhibited by the soil : their application 
to the case of vegetables will be easy and obvious. 

1. It is very clear, that we cannot look to the store of vapor in the 
general atmosphere for the origin of the icy columns. For not only 
are the appearances above-described at variance with the idea of the 
phenomenon being a modification of hoar-frost, but the amount of 
water congealed at the surface during a single night, is vastly too 
great to have come from this source. Moreover, the phenomenon 
occurs very conspicuously during our most violent and dry North- 
West winds ; circumstances under which it would be impossible for 
any condensation of atmospheric vapor to take place. It is well 
known to meteorologists, that a rapid agitation of the lower strata 
of the atmosphere, totally subverts the condition which is most 
essential to the deposition of dew, namely : that the surface must be 
colder than the superincumbent air. 

2. It cannot be occasioned by the cold contracting a superficial 
stratum of earth, and thus forcing up the moisture which freezes at 
the surface : because, this cause is utterly inadequate to furnish the 
large supply of fluid, which is required for the production of columns 
of ice, from three to five inches in length. The fact that isolated 


dods lying in moist situations, frequently exhibit a protruded 
investment of icy columns, quite equal in volume to the ^^ass of 
earth from which they issued, is obviously and palpably at variance 
with this idea. The phenomenon observed on the stems of plants is, 
likewise, manifestly inconsistent with this notion. 

3. It cannot be owing to the exhalation of acqueous vapour from 
the comparatively warm earth beneath through spiracles, undergoing 
condensation and congelation at the surface, and thus protruding the 
columns : for the amount of evaporation from such a surface, when 
the temperature of the air is at 12^ or 14^ of Fahrenheit, is hopelessly 
inadequate to furnish the necessary amount of water. Frequently, 
during a single night, a sufficient quantity of moisture is elevated in 
the form of icy columns, to maintain the surface in a very wet condition, 
even afber several days exposure to the Sun. 

4. Neither can the protrusion of the columns of ice be ascribed to 
the mere expansion of water, during the act of freezing in the capillary 
tubes of the clay: for this supposition is opposed to the well- 
established fact, that they are not connected with any/brmation ofiee 
below. Besides, if we assume the specifiG gravity of ice to be .92, as 
compared with water at 32^ Fahrenheit, it follows that the amount of 
expansion that it undergoes during the process of congelation, is 
about 87 parts in 1000 by volumes. Granting the rigidity of the 
capillary tubes to be such as to admit of no transverse increment, 
and that the whole amount of cubic expansion is thereby manifested 
in the longitudinal extension of the column — ^it appears from a simple 
calculation, that to protrude three inches of ice, the frozen column 
must penetrate <ibout thirty-four inches below the surface of the soil. 
We have already seen that the ice does not extend below the surface 
when the phenomenon is well-developed, and it is well-known that 
the degree of cold necessary for freezing water is never observed, in 
this latitude, at a greater depth than one or two inches. 

5. In seeking for a cause of the elevation of the fluid, the first 
suggestion which presented itself to my mind, was the well-known 
and remarkable expansion which water undergoes before congelation 
commences. In this we have a vera catisa, of sufficient universality, 
and acting in the right direction to account for the phenomenon, and 
yet perfectly consistent with an important invariable concomitant 
circumstance, namely : the unfrozen condition of the clay. But a little 
reflection very soon convinced me that it must play a subordinate 
part in the production of the phenomenon. A simple calculation is 


aufiicient to place the inadequacy of this cause in a strOdng point ot 
view. According to the recent and very satis&ctory experiments ci 
JouLB and Playfair, the maximum density of water is at 39° .1 
of Fahrenheit's scale. {FhiL Mag. 3d Series, vol. 30, p. 41, et seq. 
1847.) The very elaborate series of experiments of Professor 
HallstrOm show, that the mean expansion in volume, between ik 
point of maximum density and the freezing point, (32° Fahrenheit) k 
about 412 parts in 10,000,000. (Thomson on heat, etc., p. 28, Lond 
1830.) Hence it is obvious, that if by the imyielding character oi 
the capillary tubes, the whole of the increase of volume contributed 
to the elongation of the column — ^the length of the oolomn of wat«r 
requisite for furnishing three inches of ice through the operation of 
this cause, would be about 72,815 inches, or nearly 6,068 feet.* His 
reasoning is based upon the assumption, that the temperature of tk 
water at the orifice of the tube is at 32°, while that at the othei 
extremity of the column, viz: (6,068 feet below the sur&ce,) is st 
89° 1 Fahrenheit ; the only supposition consistent with the abs^ce 
of ioe beneath. As the effects of cold penetrate but a oomparatiyeiy 
short distance below the surface of the earth, the insufficiency of tbl^ 
cause is too apparent to deserve further notice. 

Having thus shown the inadequacy of several presumed causes, to 
produce the remaricable phenomena under consideration, it is, of 
course, expected that we should offer some explanation of them. 
Before doing so, it may be well to premise, that whatever may ^ 
thought to be the proximate cause of these phenomena, all the rules 
of philosophizing require us to look to the earth for the supply of 
fluid, and to the influence of cold for the elevating force. We have 
seen that the effect is invariably connected with cold, that it increase 
or diminishes with the intensity of the frigoriflc influence, and that it 
is proportional to the depression of temperature, in all cases of 
unimpeded action. The whole difiiculty lies, therefore, in ascertaining 
the modtis operandi of this cause. 

After considerable reflection, we venture to offer the following ^ 
the most probable explanation of the phenomenon. Let us suppose 
a portion of tolerably compact porous and warm earth saturated 

* Aooording to an extensiye series of experiments made by M. Dwpbs^ ^ 
the mean expansion of water between the points of maximmn doisity and teeeng 
482.6 parts in 10,000,000. (Vide Pocillet's Elements de Physique Experimentiiit 
et de Metew9logie,6ih Ed^ Tome 1., p 29S. Pari8,1847. TUs makes tiiereqi]ire<l 
lei^tfa of oolamn, equal to aboat 62,168 inches, or 5,180 feet. 




with moisture, to be exposed to the influence of a cold-producing 
cause. The soil being an indifferent conductor of heat, only a 
very superficial stratum would be reducedto the freezing point. 
As the resistance to lateral expansion is less at the surface, than 
it is at a sensible depth below, the effect of the first freezing 
R* would be to render the apices of the capillary tubes or pores conical 
s or pyramidal. The sudden congelation of the water, filling the conical 
i capillaries in the superior stratum, would produce a rapid and forcible 
a expansion, which being resisted by the unyielding walls of the cone, 
g would not only protrude, but prefect or detach and throw out the 
n thread-like columns of ice, in the direction of lecbst resistance, or 
jj perpendicular to the surface. This would leave the summits of the 
^' tubes partially empty — a condition essential to the development of 
capillary force. Under these circumstances capillary attraction would 
draw up warm water from beneath, which, undergoing congelation, 
would, in like manner, elevate the column of ice still higher ; and 
thus the process would go on as long as the cold continued to operate 
on unobstructed capillaries, supplied with sufficient water from below^ 
It will be remarked, that this explanation makes the whole process 
of protrusion to take place in a stratum of earth, of almost inappre* 
dable thickness. It also presumes, that the protruding force act 
paarotxysmaUy. Does not the wavy striated stmc ture of the icy columns 
clearly indicate that the freezing process is intermittent? It ia 
obvious, that the m^ozen state of the soil is maintained through the 
operation of two causes, to wit. : the unceasing supply of warm, 
water from below, and the large amount of kUent heat evolved during 
the continued process of congelation. These two causes appear to 
be fully adequate to explain this remarkable fact. The foregoing 
view explains why the phenomenon does not take place on hard- 
beaten earth, and on very loose soils: for, in the one case, the 
compactness of the superficial stratum not only diminishes the 
porosity, but renders the resistance to lateral expansion greater at 
the sur&ce than it is below, and consequently interferes with the 
protrusion of the column of ice in the right direction ; while in the 
other case, the openness of the soU prevents the formation of tubes 
possessing unyielding sides, a condition which is equally essential to 
the process. When the intensity of the cold is sufficiently great to 
freeze the soil, the process is arrested, because the capillary tubes are 
closed, and a resistance opposed to further protrusion. The porous 
appearance presented by the suhjaoent day, when the icy columns 





are removed, is, doubtless, referable to the enlai^ement of the orifices 
of the minute capillaries, caused by the sudden expansion of the 
successive portions of fluid, as they were frozen at the surfece. if 
the above is the true explanation of the phenomenon, we should expect 
from a priori considerations, that, iil higher latitudes, w^here the cold 
is more intense and persistent, the conditions of its manifestatioD 
would exist only during the early part of Winter, before the ground 
became deeply and permanently frozen; or else, only in certain 
favorable situations, as in the neighborhood of warm springs, and^ 
perhaps, along the margins of unfrozen streams, where local causes 
preserved the soil in a proper condition. Are not facts in accordance 
with this view-? 

The foregoing explanation appears to afford a satisfactory interpre- 
tation of a very remarkable experiment recorded by Sir John Leslie, 
which is so nearly the counterpart of what takes place in nature, that 
we cannot forbear citing it on this occasion. He says, in treating of 
artificial congelation : "when very feeble powers of refrigeration are 
employed, a most singular and beautiful appearance is, in course of 
time, slowly produced. If a pan of porous earthen-ware, from four 
to six inches wide, be filled to the utmost with common water till 
it rise above the lips, and planted above a dish of ten or twelve 
inches diameter, containing a body of sulphuric acid, and then a broad 
round receiver placed over it ; on reducing the included air to some 
limit between the twentieth and the fifth part of its usual density, 
according to the coldness of the apartment, the liquid mass will, in 
the space of an hour or two, become entwined with icy shoots, which 
gradually enlarge and acquire more solidity, but always leave the 
fabric loose and unfrozen below. The icy crust which covers the rina, 
now receiving continual accessions from beneath, rises perpendicularly 
by insensible degrees. From each point on the rough surface of the 
vessel, filaments of ice, like bundles of spun glass, are protruded, fed 
by the humidity conveyed through its substance, and forming in their 
aggregation, a fine silvery surface, analagous to that of fibrous gyps^ni 
or satin spar." ( Supplement to Encyclopaedia Britannica, vol. 3., 
Art., Cold, p. 268.) The same elevating cause must have been in 
operation during the progress of this experiment, which produces the 
protrusion of icy columns from the earth.* 

* Since the above was written, my attention has been called to BnBlogo0 
phenomena, which are exhibited during flie crystalisation of certain salts. If * 


The phenomenon manifested on certain plants is everj way analo- 
gous to that relating to the protrusion of ice from certain kinds o! 
soil, and admits of the same explanation. The porous pith furnishes 
a constant supply of warm water from the earth, while the wedge- 
shaped medullary rays secure the mechanical conditions necessary for 
the development of a projectile force in the proper direction. In 
proof of this, it may be remarked, that the medullary rays are very 
conspicuous in the Pluchea, and when the stalk is split by the free- 
zing of the water within, the fissure is observed to follow their 
course. The development of the phenomenon is arrested when the 
pith becomes frozen, for the obvious reason, that the consequent 
splitting of the stem destroys the arrangement of resisting tubes. 
For a like reason, it is exhibited lower down the stalk when it 
becomes rifled ; for the conditions essential to its production are there 
found. When the cold-producing cause is not tok} intense, the stalk 
is not frozen, for the same reason that the ground remains unfro- 
zen under similar circumstances. The reason why the phenomenon 
is manifested only in certain kinds of plants, probably arises from 
several peculiarities in their physical condition. They must be po- 
rous to furnish an abundant supply of fluid. They must be her- 
baceous and annual to secure medullary rays of sufficient size and 
openness, and, it is probable that all vital action must have ceased, 
in order that the fluid which is elevated from the soil may be unmixed, 
with the proper juices of the plants; a mixture which would Inter- 
fere with congelation. 

We conclude these observations with a few remarks on the teleologi- 
cal bearing of the phenomenon which we have been considering. The 
laws of the effect of temperature on water, are so remarkable in 
their adaptation to the beneficial course of things, at the earth's 
surface, that they have never failed to impress the student of nature 
with the most profound admiration of the wisdom and goodness of 
the Great Designer. Among these, the infinite importance of the 

portion of soft and porous wood — such as the smaller roots of our common cypress — 
be soaked in a solution of nitrate of potash, and allowed to dry by exposure to the 
air, the whole surfiEice will, in a short time, be covered with a delicate hair-like 
investment of crystaline fibres, extending in a direction at right angles to the 
surface. Sulphate of zinc, frequently manifests the same phenomenon on the 
porous earthenware cups of Grove's battery. There can be little doubt that the 
protruding cause is the same in these cases, as that whidi elevates the columns of 
ice from the ground. 

4M PBOCoamFOB of tpb amsrican association 

hUm^y of' heatf in the eoonoiDy of nature is one of the most striking. 
In the phenomenon which we have had under consideration, in relation 
to the protrusion of icy columns from the earth, we recognize an 
eztenaion of this law, the importance of which it is scarcely possible 
(or us to oyeir-estimate. By an admirable combination of the laws of 
expansion, and capillary attraction, a vast amount of water is brought 
to the surface of the soil, and there disengages its latent heat in the 
act of congelation, thereby softening the rigors of winter and pre- 
serving the roots or bulbs beneath the sur&ce of the ground from 
the destructive effects of cold. Even on those portions of the soil, 
where the phenomenon does not manifest itself in the protrusion of 
oolumns of ice, it is extremely probable that the same law operates 
to a more limited extent. This seems to be proved by a fact, which 
must have come under the observation of every one, namely : that 
the amount of moisture found at the surface of the ground (ifier a 
thaw, is vastly greater than was present before congelation took place. 
This is the case,- under circumstances which are incompatible with 
the idea of the deposition of dew: the water must, therefore, 
have been elevated from the depths of the earth. The philosopher 
who loves to dwell on causes and effects, and to trace the deep 
processes of thought by which the great purposes of nature have 
been revealed, both in the heavens above, and in the physical condi- 
tion of the earth on which he treads, will be gratified to discover in 
every portion of the universe, those prospective arrangements, 
compensations, minute adaptations, and comprehensive inter-depen- 
dencies which characterize the works of an Omniscient Architect. 

The President laid before the Association a Map from T. H. Al- 
IXANDBR, Esq., presenting a sketch of the Geology of California. 
The paper intended to accompany the Map was not received. 

A paper by Dr. S. Knebland, of Boston, on the characteristics ot 
the Hindoo skull, was then read by Dr. P. C. Gaillard, to whom it 
had been addressed to be presented to the Association. 

Oharacteristics of the Ilindoo Skull ; by S. Knbbland, Jr., of Bos- 
ton, Mass, 

I HAVB recently had the opportunity of examining several Hindoo 
:8k«l}8y mdi among them ^ujils of the four principal '^ c^tes ;'' their 
authenticity may be relied on, as they were obtained by a Hindoo 


Tcesiji/eiat with great care and difficulty ; the skulls usually found in 
collections are those of the lowest "caste," whose bodies are thrown 
into the sacred rivers of India. Their capacity and measurements 
have been carefully taken, and agree very nearly with the average 
stated by Dr. Morton, in his recently published catalogue of skulls. 

The most superficial examination shows that the Hindoo skull is 
smaller than the other varieties of the Caucasian race ; and even 
smaller than any of the other human races, excepting perhaps the 
African. The average facial angle of 13 skulls 76 1-2.° The ave- 
rage internal capacity of the Caucasian skull is 87 cubic inches, of 
the Mongolian 83, of the Malay 81, of the American 80, of the Af- 
rican 78 ; of the Hindoo, from thirty-one measurements by Dr. 
Morton, 79.7 ; the addition of our thirteen measurements reduces 
this one-fifth of a cubic inch, making Ihe average of 44 skulls 79.5 
cubic inches. 

The following are the characteristic marks of the Hindoo skull, as 
exhibited by these specimens : — ^The skull is small, the bones light, 
thin and transparent ; shape oval, forehead narrow, low and retreat- 
ing; remarkable depression at anterior inferior angels of parietal 
bones, and flatness of posterior inferior angles of the same bones ; 
coronal region well developed, prominence at anterior portion of sa- 
gittal suture, flatness on posterior portion, superior portion of occi- 
pital bone prominent, inferior flat, want of symmetry between the 
two sides of hind head, in one case as great as in the Inca Peruvian 
heads ; foramen magnum rather long than wide, temporal fossae mo- 
derate, sutures very distinct and open ; great development of the 
face ; nose prominent, with small aperture ; orbits large and deep, 
less than an inch apart ; malar bones not projecting by the norma 
verticalis, though lines drawn from the zygomatic arches upwards, 
touching the temporals, are not parallel as in the typical Caucasian ; 
incisive portion of superior maxillary bone quite prominent, with 
slanting direction of incisors, which diminishes the facial angle to 
less than 80°; downward elongation and eversion of upper alveolus, 
giving a deep, though wide form to the hard palate ; teeth much 
worn, from almost exclusive vegetable food, generally sound ; low- 
er incisors frequently filed — chin prominent — considerable expan- 
sion and outward eversion of angles of lower jaw — ^upper jaw more 
prominent than the lower — greater wing of sphenoid bone narrow in 
temporal fossa. 

It does not appear that difi*erence of " caste" modifies the configu- 



ration of the skull ; the same general type seems to prevail in ai 
classes, with occasional exceptions in point of size in the higfae 
" castes." 

The resemblance of these skulls to the Inca Peruvians and the 
Mound Indians, and certain customs and traditions of the preseo: 
and ancient Aborigines, would lead to an interesting examination d 
the migrations of the Asiatic races, foreign to our present subject. 

A table of the measurements is appended, the initials are the 
same as in Dr. Morton^s Crania Egyptiaca. 


I. H. 

I. M. 

00. F. 

F. A. 

I. a 

Cab. in. 

L. D. 







H- P. 

1st caste, - - 











2d « - - 












3d " - - 











4th " - - 










18.7 4 

4th " - - 












4th « - - 












4th « - - 












4th « 












4th " - - 












Average, - - 









S. KNEELAND, Jr., ^sion. 

A paper by G. Bordsn, Jr., of Galveston, Texas, on Meat Biscuit, 
and an accompanying letter by Dr. Ashbel Smith, were presented 
by the President, to whom they had been addressed. 

The following extract from Dr. Smith's letter will explain the 
mode of preparation, and set forth the value and uses of the Meat 
Biscuit. No specimen of the article was received by the Association, 
to enable them to pronounce any judgment in the matter. 

" I have examined with careful attention, and have several times 
eaten of the soup made of the meat biscuit — ^but, before speaking 
further of its uses, I will briefly allude to the manner of preparing 
the biscuit in question. The nutritive portions of the beef, or other 
meat, immediately on its being slaughtered, are, by long boiling, 
separated from the bones and fibrous and cartilaginous matters : the 
watel* holding the nutritious matters in solution is evaporated to a 
considerable degree of spissitude — this is then made into a dough with 
firm wheaten flour, the dough rolled and cut into the form of biscuits, 
is then desicated, or baked in an oven at a moderate heat. The 
cooking, both of the flour and the animal food is thus complete. The 



meat biscuits thus prepared have the appearance and firmness of the 
nicest crackers or navy bread, being as dry, and breaking or pulveri- 
sing as readily as the most carefully made table crackers. It is 
preserved in the form of biscuit, or reduced to a coarse flour or meal. 
It is best kept in tin cases hermetically soldered up ; the exclusion 
of air is not important, humidity alone is to be guarded against. I 
have seen some of the biscuit perfectly fresh and sound that have 
been hanging in sacks since last July in Mr. Borden's kitchen : and 
it is to be borne in mind, that in this Climate articles contract moist- 
ure and moulder promptly, unless kept dry by artificial heat. 

" For making soup of the meat biscuit, a batter is first made of 
the pulverized biscuit and cold watw — this is stirred into boiling 
water — the boiling is continued some ten or twenty minutes — salt, 
pepper, and other condiments are added to suit the taste, and the 
soup is ready for the table. I have eaten the soup several times, — 
it has the fresh, lively, clean, and thoroughly done or cooked flar 
vor that used to form the charm of the soups of the Kocher de 
Cancale. It is perfectly free from that vapid unctuous stale taste 
which characterizes all prepared soups I have hitherto tried at sea 
and elsewhere. Those chemical changes in food which, in common 
language, we denominate cooking, have been perfectly effected in Mr. 
Borden's biscuit by the long continued boiling at first, and the sub- 
sequent baking or roasting. The soup prepared of it is thus ready to 
be absorbed into the system without loss, and without tedious diges- 
tion in the alimentary canal, and is in the highest degree nutritious 
and invigorating. It is to be noted, moreover, that the meat biscuit 
is manufactured without salt, pepper, or any condiment or chemical 
antiseptic whatever : thus the freshness or peculiar properties inhe- 
rent to recently slaughtered meat are preserved, and a simple and 
perfect guarantee furnished of the goodness of any particular parcel. 
To the soup made of Mr. Borden's biscuit, as already intimated, 
salt and the various condiments used in soups may be added to suit 
the taste ; also, toasted bread, vegetables, etc. etc., as circumstances 
permit and fancy suggests, until the varied catalogue of the potoffes of 
the restaurateurs may be rivalled. 

" The different portable soups and prepared meats for long voyages, 
which I have seen, answer only imperfectly the ends for which they 
have been designed. Being prepared more or less with condiments, 
these meats differ from freshly slaughtered animal food; they contain 
fibrous and indigestible portions, being more or less liquid in form, 


they are inconvenient to carry, and besides, thus necessitate the 
transportation of useless bulk. The meats put up for long voyages, 
in the manner just alluded to, are not wholly freed from fatty mat- 
ters : these undergoing slight chemical changes in time, impair both 
the taste and the quality of the food, into which they enter ; nor are 
these meats so completely cooked as by Mr. Borden's double process 
of boiling and baking. 

"I might here insist on the very great conveniences of Mr. B.'s 
meat biscuit, arising from its dryness. For long voyages, it is best 
preserved in soldered tin cases or tight casks ; but it may be carried 
in sacks, suspended from one's saddle bow, for weeks or months, over 
the prairies, or through the desert, without risk of spoiling, using 
care to keep it dry ; and when a case or cask is opened, it may be 
economised for days or weeks, according to circumstances ; ^whereas, 
the liquid portable soups and prepared meats must be at once eaten, 
or they soon spoil, especially in damp or hot weather. 

"As no condiments nor chemical preparations enter into the meat 
biscuit, it retains, unchanged and unimpaired, all its qualities of 
freshly-slaughtered meat ; and, as already intimated, furnishes its 
own evidence and guarantee of soundness at the time of using. 

" As the meat biscuit requires only ten to twenty minutes to be 
made into a hot delicious soup, with the aid of fire and water only, 
its advantages for family use, for hospitals, at sea, and on long jour- 
neys over land, and wherever it is desirable to prepare food promptly, 
must be obvious." 

An invitation was received from Mrs. Frederick Rutledoe to 
meet at her residence on Wednesday evening, at 8 o'clock. 
Adjourned to meet to-morrow, at 10 A. M. 

LEWIS R. GIBBES, Secretary. 

FOR TBS JLjifVAjstttMiaaxt oF^ wnatotL' 98r 

Second Day, Wednesday, March 13^ 1850. 

The Assodation was called to order by the President at 10 Ai' 
M., and the Minutes of the last meedng read by Dr. Gaillabi>, A»^ 
sistant Secretary. 

Dr. C. M. Chsvbs, nominated by the Standing Committee, wtti 
elected a member of the Association. 

The Standing Committee determined that there should be ea(# 
day an Evening Session, to commence at 6 P. M., and announced 
the programme for the Morning and Evening Sessions. 

A letter of resignation, with explanations, from Prof. Jork Locks; 
was presented. 

On motion of Prof. AoASsiz, his resignation was accepted, and 
the letter referred to the Standing Committee. 

The following Report was then presented, and read by the Secre- 

Report of the Committee on the Communication of Lieut Maurt, 

upon Winds and Currents. 

The Committee of the American Assodation for the advancement 
of science, to which was referred the communication of Lieut. M. F; 
Maurt, U. S. Navy, on the Winds and Currents of the Ocean, haa 
had the subject under consideration, and has now the honor to sub- 
mit the following report : 

Through the great zeal and industry of the author of this commu- 
nication, a vast amount of information has been brought to light, 
which had hitherto been concealed in the unknown records of sea 
voyages. These records taken separately, consist of individuid ex-^ 
periences and observations, such as are necessarily of limited extent 
and value, and cannot by their single authority lead to any general 
conclusions. But combined and compared together, as has been 
done by Lieut. Maurt, they prove to be of great importance, and 
promise to elidt information of the highest interest to the practical 
navigator, and to the man of science. 



Upon a correct knowledge of the force and set of currents in the 
ocean, often depends not only the safety of vessels and their cargoes, 
but the lives of all on board ; and owing to the want of this know- 
ledge, many lives and much valuable property are annually cast 
away and lost at sea. 

We are yet ignorant, to a certain extent, of the general laws 
which regulate the great currents of the ocean, and to a still greater 
degree are we uninformed of the nature and direction of local cur- 
rents, which occurring near the land, are either very serviceable, or 
very dangerous to the navigator, according to the state of his infor- 

While also we are acquainted with the limits and direction of the 
most conspicuous general winds, as the trade-winds and monsoons, 
we have still much to learn concerning the places of meeting of 
these winds with each other, or with different winds, and the direc- 
tions resulting from the combined action-~conceming the winds that 
prevail chiefly, or at different seasons of the year, in what are termed 
the variable regions, and concerning the local winds, which owe their 
existence and character to the influence of neighboring lands. 

We have again to be still further instructed as to the nature of 
meteoric storms, by which great destruction is caused upon the sea. 
The more we accumulate facts concerning them, the better shall we be 
able to discover the seat and circumstances of their origin, their va- 
riable dimensions, the course they travel, and the indications by 
which their approach is to be known. 

Thermpmetrical navigation requires still to be very much im- 
proved before we can reap the full benefit which the use of this sim- 
ple instrument, the thermometer, is destined to afford to the seaman. 

It is now recognized as one of the easiest methods by whic^ the 
mariner can ascertain his approach, either distant or near, to our 
coast, and discover his proximity to icebergs. 

To these several branches of nautical knowledge, the researches 
of Lieut. Maurt have already made valuable additions, as we learn 
from the communication submitted to the Committee. 

And, if continued, these additions must become every day more 
important, and lead nearer and nearer, to a correct understanding of 
the laws by which these phenomena, whether general or local, are 
governed, and of the best manner in which the navigator can profit 
by the facts that fall under his observation. 

Every effort to increase the safety of navigation, and facilitate 


the business of the sea, must command our wannest sympathies. 
The success that has hitherto attended the efforts of Lieut. Maury, 
induces the Committee to urge upon the Association, and upon the 
Government, the great importance of continuing these investigations. 
The Association can only lend the influence of its opinion and the 
encouragement of its sincere commendation. 

But it is in the power of the General Government, by the use of 
vessels, and by other means, to furnish material assistance, and to 
afford substantial proof of its approbation of these researches, and the 
discoveries to which they have now led, and to which they will con- 
duct hereafter. 

The idea that suggested them, and the plan on which they are 
based, are entirely originjEd with Lieut. Maury. 

By his zealous exertions, he has enlisted the interest and voluntary 
services of a large corps of observers, seamen and navigators, who 
have shared in his enthusiasm, and are now, under his direction, daily 
contributing to increase the securities of commerce, to develope the 
laws of our globe, and thus to advance the cause of human know- 
ledge and improvement. 

The Committee respectfully submits this Report, with an earnest 
recommendation that the Association give to Lieut. Maury their 
cordial co-operation and support, and that a copy of this paper be 
transmitted to the Hon. Secretary of the Navy, and to the Chairmen 
of the Naval Committees of the Senate and House of Representa- 
tives of Congress. Jarbd Sparks, 

Lewis R. Gibbes, 
Benjamin Peircb, 
Wm. C. Redfield, 
J. Ingersoll Bowditch, 
Arnold Guyot. 
The Report was adopted and ordered to be printed with the Pro- 

Prof. Bachb moved that when the reading of papers commence, a 
Chairman be appointed, as if the meeting were that of a section. 

The Association then proceeded, according to resolution of yester- 
day, to elect three members to complete the Standing Committee. 
After ballot. Prof. C. U. Shbpard, Dr. Jambs Moultrie, and Dr. 
Robert W. Gibbes, were announced as elected. 

Lieut. M. F. Maury was now called to the Chair, and 


An abstract of a paper, bj Dr. S. KwtBLAin>, of Boston, entitlcid 
the Manatus not a Cetacean, but a Pachyderm, 'was read by Dr. P. 
C. Gaillabd, to whom it had been addressed ; the foUovrin^ is the 
paper at length : 

I%e Manatus not a Cetacean, but a Faehyderm ; by S. KNSsi.Ain), 

Jr., of Boston, Mass. 

At a recent meeting of the Boston Society of Natural History, 
the President, Dr. Johk C. Warren, presented a fine and nearly 
perfect skeleton of the Manatus, of Florida; on which occasfon, 
Prof. AoAssiz compared its skull with that of the Mastodon and 
Elephant, and observed that the so-called Herbivorous Cetacea mast 
be removed from the order Cetacea, and placed rather among the 
Pachydermata, of which last they are the embryonic type. 

Since this, I have carefully examined other parts of the skeleton, 
and find many other points which confirm the above opinion ; and 
these I now offer to the Association. 

The cervical vertebrae of Cetacea are almost always more or less 
consolidated together, indicating comparatively little motion of the 
neck, either vertical or lateral. The Manatus has the short neck of 
the Cetacea, but there is more evident separation between the head 
and trunk ; the cervical vertebrae are all separate, the 1st and 2d, being 
much the largest. Cuvtkr says, that the annular portion of the 3d, 
4th, and 5th cervical vertebrae, is not complete ; in- this skeleton, all 
are complete. Cuvier, Carus, and Meckel state that the Manatus 
has only six cervical vertebrae, the seventh having a complete nh ; 
but, if there are only six cervical, there are seventeen dorsal vertebrae, 
whereas Carus and Cuvier make but sixteen : — the seventh cervical, 
at any rate, resembles the dorsal perfectly, except in size ; it has no 
vertebral foramen ; it has two articulating surfaces, for a rib, one on 
the body, and one on the transverse process ; the rib-articulating sur- 
face on the body is only the half, the vertebra above completing the 
articulation ; the transverse articulating surface is complete — ^in these 
two last respects, the seventh is like the other rib-bearing vertebwe. 
The last three cervical vertebrae in the elephant have large spinous 
processes, which the Manatus has not ; even the seventh has only a 
mere rudiment — but aquatic animals' have no need of them, their 
heads not requiring the support of a strong ligamentum nuchae in so 
dense a medium as water ; in Seals, these processes are c^omparatiTdy 


short. The atlas and axis in the Elephant are almost bifid on their 
upper surface ; in the Manatus they have large spinous tubercles ; 
the cervical vertebrae are pierced for the vertebral arteryi even the 
atlas on the right side. 

There are sixteen dorsal vertebrae in the Manatus, allowing seven' 
cervicaL The spinous processes are short, wide, and of uniform size 
on all, in which it resembles other aquatic mammalia — ^this number 
is intermediate between the Cetaceans, and the larger Pachyderms. 
The tranverse processes, (as in Cetaceans,) are as long as the spinous, 
In Cetaceans (Cuvikr, Anatomic Comparee, tom. 1, p. 197) ^^post^ 
rior articular processes of the dorsals disappear after the few first 
ones, while the anterior are also soon effaced — ^in the Manatus, the* 
posterior articular processes exist in all the dorsals, in two vertebrae 
below, while the anterior are seen in all the dorsals, and in six below, 
in which it approaches the Pachyderms. The inferior surfece of the 
bodies of the dorsals, instead of being regularly rounded, is com- 
pressed and sharp laterally, in the Manatus ; this resembles some' 
Pachyderms, as the Horse. 

As in Cetaceans, there is no definite limit between the lumbar, 
sacral, and caudal vertebrae. The spinous proceses gradually dimin- 
ish from the last dorsal (or, 28d from the head,) to the 40th, where 
they, with the spinal foramen, cease. The transverse processes are 
very long, some six inches in length ; the twenty-fifth has the laigest, 
whence they diminish to the forty-eighth ; they are flat, broad and 
thin ; these differ from those of the terrestrial mammalia, and must, 
of course, be for the insertion of the powerful muscles of the tail. 
On the imder surface of the caudal vertebrae there are two longitudi- 
nal rows of eminences, (two on each side on each body) which form a 
kind of groove for nerves and vessels, and for muscular attachments ; 
but there is nothing to be compared with the inferior spinous pro- 
cesses of fishes, reptiles, and some mammalia (especially Cetaceans.) 

Cuvier's table of the number of vertebrae in the Manatus ^es 
"more than forty;" in our specimen there are certainly twenty- 
seven below the last dorsal, which would make a total of fifty ; and 
there may be one or two more : he gives the Dugong 53 at least. 
This number is nearer the average of the Pachyderms than that of 
the Cetaceans, which last have more than sixty. In the Manatus, 
the osseous discs between the vertebral bodies seen in Cetacea, are 
not met with ; neither the separation of the processes from the 


The sternum of the Maiiatus is flat and wide,. and the general 
shape of the thorax round, as in Cetacea. 

In the Manatus, there are sixteen pairs of ribs, of which only t^wo 
reach the sternum ; in the Elephant there are nineteen pairs, of which 
six are true. In Cetacea, the anterior ribs articulate with only one ver- 
tebral body, while the posterior ribs articulate even only with the 
transverse processes — in the Manatus, all the ribs, except the last 
three, are articulated each to two vertebral bodies, and all are articu- 
lated to the transverse processes: in this it also resembles the 
Pachyderms. The ribs are quite cylindrical, thick, and very strong 
and heavy ; the anterior extremity, instead of being flat is conical. 
The surface articulating with the transverse process is less prominent, 
and the angle of the rib less evident, (firom the more regular curve,) 
than in the Pachyderms. 

The Scapula in the Cetaceans, is broad, its dorsal border being 
double its height ; the supra-spinous fossa very small ; the spine little 
prominent; a large. acromion and coracoid process: (Cuvibr, tome 
1, p. 354.) In the Manatus, it is long and narrow ; the supra and 
infra spinous fossae large and nearly equal ; the spine quite prominent 
on anterior two-thirds ; on posterior third, absent : acromion process 
two inches in length, half an inch wide, thin, projecting over glenoid 
cavity ; the coracoid process a mere knob, half an inch from glenoid 
cavity. Its general shape is like the scapula of the horse. 

The humerus somewhat resembles the human femur in its upper 
extremity, in its regular rounded head, well-defined neck, and tro- 
chanter-like tuberosities. Its shape is quite regular, it being very 
little twisted on itself — ^in its lower portion it more nearly resem- 
bles, both in shape and size, the humerus of the Tapir^ than of any 
other Pachyderm — the lower part is not perforated above the con- 
dyles. It is wholly unlike that of the Cetaceans. 

ThQ fore-arm is wanting in our specimen ; but, according to Cuvikr, 
the^ttdius and ulaa are joined together above and below, otherwise 
lik^ihe other Mammalia. In Cetacea, they are compressed and 
flattened, and united by cartillage to the himierus and carpus. 

The phalanges and carpus are wanting. All the bones are of a 
very heavy and compact structure, like ivory ; very different from 
the light and porous bones of Cetacea. 

In Cetaceans, the extent of the occipital bone is very much greater 
than in the Manatus : in. Cetacea, the occipital condyles are almost 
united below, but they are widely separated in Manatus and Pachy« 


derms : in Cetacea, their plane is nearly vertical, almost all of their 
articulating surface looking directly backwards, and none looking 
downwards : in the Manatus and Pachyderms, nearly half of the ar- 
ticulating surface is on the inferior portion of the s*kull, indicating 
much more, extended motions of the skull on the atlas. The occipital 
foramen is much larger in proportion in the Manatus, than in Cetacea ; 
the lateral diameter is twice the vertical. The whole basal portion 
of the skull is entirely unlike in the Manatus and Cetacea; the former 
resembles the Pachyderms. The cranical sutures are well marked, 
but very thick and strong, totally different from the squamous 
sutures of Cetacean crania. The parietal bones in Cetacea are sepa- 
rated by the whole width of the occipital bone, being only seen in 
the temporal fossse ; in the Manatus and Pachyderms they occupy 
their normal position, but they are united into a single bone. The 
bony falces in the interior of Cetacean crania are not seen in the 
Manatus. The frontal bones of Cetacea are almost entirely covered 
by the maxillary bones, which extend up, nearly to the occipital 
crest ; in the Manatus, and in most Pachyderms, they are separated 
by a suture, and occupy the usual position in front of the parietals. 
The temporal bones of Cetaceans can hardly be said to form a part 
of the Cranium ; the zygomatic processes are very unlike the strong, 
thick, and wide ones of the Manatus, which are almost united to the 
orbitar processes of the frontals. The crests for muscular insertions 
are stronger than in Cetaceans. 

There is a remarkable want of symmetry in Cetacean crania, which 
is not noticed in the Manatus. The ruisal bones of Cetacea are mere 
rudiments, and unsymmetrical, and the nasal opening is on the top 
of the head; in the Manatus 'the nasal opening is at the anterior ex- 
tremity of the head — the nasal bones, though small, are in the usual 
position ; in the great length of the nasal opening (extending above 
the orbits,) in its horizontal plane (being vertical in Cetacea,) and in 
the shortness of the nasal bones (which cover only a small portion 
of the nasal cavity,) the skull of the Manatus comes nearest to the 
Tapir, among living Pachyderms. 

According to most anatomists, the Cetacea have no olfactory 
nerve ; if they have, the sense of smell in a passage used as a blow- 
hole for the discharge of water, cannot be very acute. The nasal 
passages of the Manatus do not perform a similar function ; and the 
mobility and general appearance of the nostrils indicate a more re- 
fined sense of smell, — ^whether it has an ol&ctory nerve or not, I am 


unable to say ; but the perforations of the cribriform plate of the 
ethmoid bone are more numerous and larger than in Cetacea ; and 
the structure of the ethmoid cells and plates, (which are wanting 
in Cetacea,) seem to show a considerable acuteness of smell. 

The maxillary and intermaxillary bones, prolonged into a snout 
armed with conical teeth in Cetacea, are wholly unlike the same bones 
in the Manatus ; the whole shape of the cranium and face is as unlike 
as in any other two orders of mammalia. The Manatus (in the adult) 
has no incisors, or other teeth at the anterior portion of the jaw ; 
the molars resemble, according to Mr. Owen, the teeth of some cf 
the fossil tapiroid Pachydermata. In his British Fossil Mammals 
and Birds, 1846, Mr. Owen alludes to the opinion (now known to 
be incorrect) that the Dinotherium, or gigantic Tapir of Cuvier, was 
a Herbivorous Cetacean, from the character of the teeth ; it is now 
considered a true Pachyderm. In speaking of Lophiodon, (p. 312,) 
he says the teeth of many other Mammalia resemble those of the 
Tapir ; and among these the Manatus, in having two principal trans- 
verse ridges to the molars, though these ridges present some diffe- 
rences. In the Annals du Museum d'Histoire, Naturelle, for 1809, 
CuviER says that the cheek teeth of the Manatus resemble very 
much those of the Tapir, 

The orbits of the Manatus are very prominent, encircled almost 
completely by bone, and situated even below the upper portion of 
the nasal opening ; according to Cuvier, in the Hippopotamus the 
orbit is in like manner almost entirely encircled with bone ; in Ce- 
tacea, the orbits are still lower in relation to the nasal openings ; 
they are completely covered above, (chiefly by a flat process of the 
frontal,) but below only by a delicate bony filament from the ma- 
lar bone. The Manatus has a very large infra-orbital foramen, as 
the Pachydermata. At the junction of the frontal, sup. maxillary 
and malar bones (as it were, enclosed between two laminse of the 
maxillary,) is a lachrymal bone, which is not found generally in Ce- 
taceans, not even in the foetus, (according to Cuvier.) 

The lower jaw in Cetacea is light and weak compared with the 
Manatus ; it is horizontal, having no ascending ramus, and only a 
trace of a coronoid process ; the condyle looks directly backward; 
the two bones easily separate at the symphysis. In the Manatus, as 
in. Pachyderms, the lower jaw is very solid ; there is a strong as- 
cending ramus and a large coronoid process; the condyle is horizon- 
tal^ transverse and spherical ; the symphysis is firmly united, though 


the suture is visible — in its curved form, descending angle and sym- 
physis, it resembles the Hippopotamus. The Manatus also differs 
from the Cetacea in its stomach, in the presence of a coecum, and in 
the structure of the heart. 

From these diflerences must we not remove the Manatus from 
Cetacea and place it among Pachydermata, where it stands in the 
same relation as do the Seals among the other Camivora ?* 

Prof. Agassiz made a few remarks on this paper, to the effect that 
in his opinion the classification of animals must hereafter be based 
on Embryology. 

Prof. M. J. Williams next made a report on the following paper, 
by Prof. James H. Coffin, of La Fayette College, Easton, Pa. 

A simple demonstration of the theorem^ that the attraction of a 
sphere upon a particular exterior to it, is the same as though all the 
matter of the sphere were concentrated at the centre. 

The following demonstration has an advantage over others that I 
have seen, both in point of simplicity and of generality. Indeed it 
is so simple, that I greatly suspect it is not new, though I have never 
met with it. hi the ordinary analytical method, parallel planes are 
taken as the elements of the sphere, and the demonstration requires 
two integrations, and then applies only to spheres that are homoge- 
neous ; whereas this requires but one integration, and applies to any 
sphere in which the density varies as any function of the distance 
from the centre. Newton's geometrical demonstration is equally 
general, but prolix. In this demonstration, concentric spherical sur- 
faces (like the coats of an onion,) are taken as the elements of the 

* Note. — ^The Society in Boston have received since the above was written, other 
bones of the Manatus, which enable me to call it a complete skeleton ; among 
others, the fore-arm of both sides, the carpus of both sides, the metacarpus and 
phalanges of one side. 

. Also, the rudiments of the pelvis, and about 10 pairs of inferiof spinqus arches 
to the coccygeal vertehrfie, both of which I said in my paper there was no indica> 
tion of They need no description, as they are accurately figured by Cuyisb, in 
the Annales du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, vol. 18. 


Let DEB represent the 
sphere, C its centre, D any 
point in the surface, and P 
the attracted particle. ^ ' 

Draw the plane DE at 
right angles to PB. 

Put PC=a, CD=r, and 

Then (by trigonometry) PG= 2a & AG= 2a 

And (by mensuration) the surface of the segment cut oif by DE^ 

The differential of this surface = which divided by P D* to 

obtain the attractive force becomes — ^^ .i by resolving this force 
in the direction P C, it is reduced in the ratio P D : P G, and be- 

comes itr «— ^> which is the differential of the attractive 

force in that direction. 

The integral of this between the limits, ^=at— »* (for the point A) 
and x=a-^r (for the point B) gives the attraction of the whole sur- 

^^afy^ surface ^) 

face of the sphere= — 3— =• § ^^-^T" putting Q for the quan- 

a Qi ) 

tity of matter in surface or outer element of the sphere. Now if 
this matter were placed at the centre of the sphere, the expression 


for its attraction would obviously be ~a~, which shows the attrac- 
tion to be the same in both cases ; and the same would hold true of 
every concentric element of the sphere, and consequently of the 
whole sphere. 

The third paper, was Observations on some of the applications of 
Natural Science to the Moral Laws of Ancient Nations ; by Dr. J. 
H. Gibbon, of U. S. Branch Mint, Charlotte, N. C, of which the 
following synopsis was furnished by the author : 


Synopsis of Observations on some of the applications of Natural 
Science to the Moral Laws of Ancient Nations. 

The several inclinations — ^to Murder (6); to Infidelity (7); to 
Theft (8) ; to Falsehood (9) ; and to Covetousness (10) — ^which are 
all plainly and distinctly objected to in men, by ancient and moral 
laws, are visible by what we call "instincts" among other animals. 

In regarding these acts when practised by other classes of crea- 
tures, we are sensible they result from natural impulse in them. 

If man be directed not to imitate, or to indulge such propensities, 
can we not perceive that the interdiction Recognizes similar natural 
impulse in us 1 While it assumes, with equal distinctness and sim- 
pUdty, a natural power of resistance upon the same authority. 

Instruction in natural acts and influences, or in natural science, 
was thus presented as an important duty, and the fifth command, re- 
quiring obedience of children to parents, includes in a very original 
manner a requisition for the instruction of childi-en by parents. 

In the first command of the moral law, the existence and attri- 
butes of a God are recognized as apparent and obvious, without ex- 
planation or argument, other than that which " the peculiar name" 
in the Hebrew designates and controls. . 

The title " I am," in our English version, including several tenses 
of the « Verb to be"—" I am"—" I was"— « I will be." 

The strange developments which modem travel and discovery 
have made, in the manners and relics of natives existing before the 
announcement of the Hebrew Decalogue, show the evident reason, 
of objecting, by the second command to the imaginative conceptions, 
which attempt to falsify the acts and the laws of " the Great Master* 
of multitudes." 

The third command appears designed to expose and correct any 
misapplication of "the peculiar name of God," and to have been 
designed to expose and reprove the deceptive practices of the an- 
cient priesthood. 

The true translation is considered to be, " thou shalt not use the 
name of the Lord thy God, through vanity or with deceit." 

Truth was made the sole test, by which men were taught to judge 
the declarations of other men, when they employed " the name" of 
the Divinity. 

Monday was the day appointed for the rest of oxen in India, prior 
to the law of the Hebrew Decalogue. 



Hie inculcation that the Almighty had gradually fonned the hea- 
venly bodies, the earth, and the sea, is used as an ai^ument, why ^we 
in effecting our labour, should allow to all, the instruments of such 
action, a discriminate period for thought, and for refreshment, and 
for natural rest. 

The children, the servants, the cattle and " the strangers," are 
protected by the same lawgiver, who limited the movements of the 
planets, the seasons, and the tides ! 

These ten moral commands, so irregularly introduced, rule tbe 
system of our moral natures, and teach us how to regulate the ex- 
cesses of the dispositions, implanted within us for the services of 
active life, by the proper exercise of the understanding God has also 
endowed us* with. 

In some respects this moral code was a modification of institutions 
then existing, while in others it exhibited a complete contrast, or 
exception, to the customs and belief of that time. 

The main difference between the more ancient and the compara- 
tively new decalogue, will be found in an adjustment of the parts, 
reformed by the same principles which led to the few original truths 
of moral sciences, designed ' to make '^ life" more valuable, but 
chiefly in distinguishing man^s true, natural and moral connections 
with his Creator — ^which, in the former code, had been omitted 
either by intentional deception, or defective observation and know- 

Prof. A. D. Bache then addressed the Association on the results 
of observations, on the direction and force of the wind at two of the 
Coast Survey Stations in the Gulf of Mexico, illustrating his subject 
by numerous diagrams, in which these results were traced. The 
substance of his remarks is contained in the following : 

Notes on the Results of Observations of the direction and force of 
the wind at the Coast Survey Stations, at Mobile Point, and at Cat 
Island, Gulf of Mexico, under the immediate direction of Lieut, 
Com. C P. Patterson, U. S, Navy, Assistant in the Coast Survey; 
by Prof. A. D. Bache, Superintendant. 

Prof. Bache stated that the observations, of which he was about 
to call attention to the results, had been made in connexion with 
tidal observations of U. S. Coast Survey, at Fort Morgan, Mobile 



Point, and at Cat Island Light House, near the entrance of Lake 

The observations did not pretend to more than a general accuracy, 
the directions being estimated by a streamer upon a flag staff, by the 
the aid of a circle, on which the points of the compass were 
marked. The force was estimated on the usual nautical scale, re- 
presenting a calm, and 10 a tornado. The following was the table 
which was used in recording the force of the wind. 

Nautical Scale, 






Light Breeze. 
Gentle Breeze. 
Moderate Breeze. 
Fresh Breeze. 
Strong Breeze. 
Moderate Gale. 
Fresh Gale. 
Whole Gale. 

The observations were made hourly, during both night and day. 
In computing the results, the numbers expressing the force are 
converted into miles per hour, by the following table : 


Velocity of miles per hour. 

1 . . . 



. ' 4 

3 . . . 




5 . . . 




7 . . . 

... 50 



9 . . . 




The number of times during which the wind was noted as blowing 
from a given direction, is taken as the number of hours of its dura- 
tion. The duration multiplied by the velocity is taken to represent 
the quantity of wind blowing from any given direction. These 
quantities are plotted on diagrams on a scale of 400 miles to the 
inch, in which the distances from the circumference of a central circle 


in the several directions represent the proportional quantities of air 
passing from a given direction. The irregular figures formed by 
joining the extremities of these radial lines, show by their areas the 
relative quantities of wind from the several points of the compass. 
The quantities for each month were represented from a year's obser- 
vations (1848) at Cat Island, and from the mean of two years ob- 
servations (commencing June 1847, ending June 1849) at Fort Mor- 
gan. The observations were made under the direction of Lieut. 
Comd'g. C. P. Patterson, U. S. N., Assistant in the Coast Survey, 
by Messrs. Wurdbmann and Bassett, and reduced under the direction 
of the same officer. The diagrams were drawn by Messrs. Dean 
and Harrison, of the U. S. Coast Survey. 

Beginning with the month of June at Fort Morgan, we have the 
Summer period, in which the S. W., (the sea breeze) is the prevailing 
wind, the South winds are nearly double the North in quantity, and 
the Westerly winds somewhat exceed the Easterly. July has the 
same general characteristics except that the South- West wind is 
diminished in quantity. In August, the Summer characteristic be- 
gins to give way, and the Winter or North-East wind is considerably 
increased in quantity, preparing for the entire change which September 
presents, and the characteristic increase of North and North-East 
winds, and the diminution of Southerly winds. October and No- 
vember present the same general characteristics as September, the 
North-East wind diminishing in November. 

December, January, and February present the same general fea- 
tures in the large proportion of Northerly wind passing towards 
East and South-East, and preparing for the large increase of South- 
Easterly^dnds, shown in March. 

The S. v?^. wind begins to re-appear in considerable proportion in 
April, the North and S. E. being still greater in quantity than the 
S. W. In May the S. W. becomes predominant. 

Dividing thus into periods, March and April would be assimilated, 
the prevailing winds being North and South-East. 

May, June, and July, S. E., and especially S. W. ; August, almost 
equality, as to Northward, Southward, Eastward, and Westward 
direction; September, October and November, North and North- 
East ; and December, January and February, North ; even in the 
latter, the preparation for the entrance of S. E. winds, in March, 
begins to appear. 

The diagram, which shows the mean results for two years, exhibits 


a great prevalence of Northerly wind, and of Southerly, and a defi- 
ciency in the section from West round to North. The prevalence of 
due North wind here, and absence of winds from West round to 
North, were remarked to be due at least in part to the locality espe- 
cially exposed to the North wind, sweeping the length of Mobile 
Bay, and in a degree sheltered by the land from the North-West. 

The same general features prevail, as shown by the diagram, for 
the results at Cat Island, in 1848, modified by the influence of locali- 
ty, protected towards the S. W., and more exposed from North 
round to West, than the former station. The same grouping of the 
months in relation to the character of the winds appears. 

In the whole year the same prevalence of Easterly winds over 
Westerly, the same great disproportion between S. E. and N. W. 

Prof. Bachb remarked on the ease with which the results can thus 
be generalized by the eye, when traced on diagrams. He next insti- 
tuted a comparison of these results with those obtained at the Grirard 
College Magnetic Observatory, in 1843, where a self-registering Os- 
ler's Anemometer was used, and the results had consequently 
considerable precision. 

The characteristics of the months, the grouping, and the general 
results for the year were all different. 

June, July, and August form the summer period, showing a gene- 
ral prevalence of S. W. winds, as for May, June, and July, at Fort 
Morgan. September shows N. E. as the prevailing wind. October, 
November, December and January, unite in a North-West character- 
istic. February and March, and April and May, appear to form 
separate pairs. 

The whole year shows a great prevalence of winds from West to 
North, just where the former stations w^re deficient, a preponde- 
rance of Northerly over Southerly winds, and of Westerly over 
Easterly, as entire a want of local equilibrium, and in the reversed 
directions, as were presented by the stations in the Gulf of Mexico. 

Lieut. Maury made remarks on the importance of observations 
such as those contained in Prof. Bache'b paper, and on the value 
of the results to the mariner. 

The next paper in order was Lieut. Maurt's, on the use of the 
Electro-Chronograph in determining the figure and density of the 


On a new application of the Magnetic Telegraph, 

LiBUT. Maurt gave an account of Dr. Locke's clock at the Na- 
tional Observatory, and said the use of it had suggested the idea 
of determining, by means of the electro-chronograph, the figure and 
density of the earth, the height of mountains, and differences in the 
density of the interior strata between the centre and surface of the 
earth at different places. 

Professor Keith, one of the assistants at the Observatory, had, 
by means of two globules of mercury to each, converted two other 
clocks (viz: the west sidereal and the mean time clock) also into 
electro-chronographs. The index or a pointer to the pendulum 
passed through a globule of mercury at the lowest part of the arc 
of each vibration, and while this pointer was in transit through this 
globule, the circuit was complete, and the recording pen made a dot 
on the registering surface, which, in this case, was a fillet of paper 
moving at the rate of half an inch a second between two rollers, as 
in the case of a common Morse Register, which is generally seen in 
telegraph offices. 

The other globule was placed in the upper part of the clock, and 
so situated that a little metallic pin attached to the axis of the sec- 
ond wheel would pass through this globule at every sixtieth second. 
As the circuit through this globule was the shorter, the fluid, aban- 
doning the long one through the pendulum, would take the shorter 
route back, and the recording pen would thus omit to make a dot at 
the completion of every minute. 

The registering apparatus has five pens in a row, each of which is 
worked by a circuit of its own, and they are so arranged that if each 
one of the five were to make a dot at the same instant, we should 
see a row of five dots across the fillet of paper and at right angles to 
the plane of its length. 

If we suppose the mean time and sidereal clocks each to run with 
a rate equal to Os.O, and their pens each in connection with the regis- 
ter, we shall find that the pen of the sidereal clock wiU make 366 
dots, whUe that of the mean time clock is making 365 nearly; so 
that if the fillet of paper move under the pen at the rate of an inch 
per second, the distance between the dots of the two pens at a given 
second will differ from the distance between them the next second 
the 365th part of an inch nearly. 

Lieut. Maury exhibited fillets of paper on which the two clocks 


bad been made to dot seconds until there was a gain of a second 
"between them. The dots were made upon parallel lines running as 
closely to each other as lines can conveniently be drawn on paper. 
He suggested that, in order accurately to ascertain the difference of 
these two clocks, it was not necessary that the fillet of paper should 
actually move through equal spaces during every second of time, or 
during the whole period of a second, but that the motion should be 
uniform through almost infinitely small spaces, as through the 365th 
part of a second for instance. 

Suppose, for the sake of illustration, that the sidereal clock com- 
pletes its gain of a second on the mean time dock exactly at the 
instant of making the 365th dot of one, and the 366th dot of the 
other, then the interval on the fillet between the 364th dot of the 
one and the 365th dot of the other should be equal to the interval 
between the 366th dot of the one, and the 367th dot of the other. 
The difference between these two pairs of dots he proposed to mea- 
sure by means of a powerful microscope, with a micrometer attached, 
observing that space could be multiplied with much more accuracy 
optically, than it can mechanically. Thus, suppose the microscope 
used should magnify but 365 times, the 365th part of an inch would 
then appear through the microscope as an inch to the naked eye, 
which part might be readily subdivided optically into hundredths, 
and thus give us the means of measuring with considerable accuracy 
the 36500 part of a second. 

With such refinement in the recording and sub-division of time, 
the Lieutenant said, that if two experimental pendulums, nearly du- 
plicates of each other, were freely suspended and vibrated, the one in 
New-Orleans, and the other near the same meridian, on the borders 
of the great American Lakes, for instance ; and if these pendulums 
were further so arranged as to make and break circuit, so as to re- 
cord their vibrations in Washington, with the standard clock of the 
National Observatory, and if, after these vibrations had been contin- 
ued till one pendulum had gained a vibration upon the other, the 
two pendulums were reversed and vibrated for a like period ; that is, 
if the New-Orleans pendulum were removed to the Lake Station, 
and that of the Lakes removed to New-Orleans, and both vibrated 
as before, we should, theoretically, at least, have afforded to us rare 
facilities for determining an arc of the meridian. 

If, now, the two pendulums were placed on the same parallel of 
latitude, one on the Atlantic, and the other in the Mississippi valley, 



for instance, and vibrated, reversed and vibrated as before, the data 
would be complete, theoretically speaking, for detennining l>oth 
figure and density. 

Again, if one pendulum were vibrated on the mountains crossed 
by Magnetic Telegraph, under such circumstances as to make dots 
on the same fillet with another vibrating on the sea shore, or at a 
Imown elevation above tide water, we should, by reversing these 
p^dulums, and vibrating as before, have again, theoretically, the 
data for determining the difference between the distance of the two 
stations from the centre of the earth, or in other words, the height 
of the mountain. 

Nay, if we suppose the Magnetic Telegraph to be extended to the 
West Coast of America — Qalifomia for instance — and if two pendu- 
lumns, one on the Pacific, the other on the Atlantic, be vibrated, 
reversed, vibrated and recorded as before, through electro-chrono- 
graph, we shall have the arguments for determining the difference of 
level between the two oceans, or the difference in density between 
the strata, which are interposed between the centre and the cir- 
cumference, on the Atlantic, and the centre and circumference on 

. the Pacific Coast. 

The influence of the moon is also felt by the free pendulum, and 
if the pendulum were vibrated for a given time when the influence 

. of the moon was a maximum, and again, when it was a minimum, 
and in such a manner as to record its vibrations through electro-chro- 
nograph, we should derive the elements for determining the mass of 
the moon. 
Theoretically, all this was true. The Pendulum would have diffe- 

„. rent times of vibrations imder all these circumstances, and would 
tremble to the influence of each one of these several agents, but 
whether the experiment could be so refined in practice as to detect 
the influence of these several agents, is another matter, and one as 
to which the Lieutenant did not, at present, intend to express an 
opinion. ' 
. Suffice it to say, should the means of observation be so refined as 

' to detect such very small quantities, the wires of the Magnetic Tele- 
graph would then become, in the hands of the Astronomer, as a 
tentacle, with which he may feel the centre of the earth, as a gauge 
with which he may measure the difference of density in its strata, 

, and as a balance with which he may weigh the moon, and measure 
atmospheric accumulations. 


The Director of the National Observatory further remarked that 
the experimeuts which he had already made in Washington, en- 
couraged him to hope that the electro-chronographic clock might be 
used, not only to drive the machinery of the registering apparatus, 
but to drive the clock-work of the equatorial also. If by such 
means a certain smooth and uniform rate of motion could be obtained 
for telescopes equatorially mounted, practical astronomers would 
regard it as an improvement of much value and importance. 

Prof, GiBBss observed, that during a journey last summer, through 
the mountainous region of Georgia, the chief object kept in view 
was the selection of some peak, proper for the repetition of Maskk- 
lynb's experiment for determining the density of the earth. Though 
no mountain was seen which presented in combination the conditions 
regarded as necessary in isolation, size, and sufficient regularity of 
figure and structure to permit survey and computation of its mass, 
yet Stone Mountain in D.eKalb Coimty, Georgia, offers some ad- 
vantages, which, perhaps, adapt it for the kind of observations 
alluded to in Lieut. Mauky's paper. It is completely isolated, no 
peak of similar height, or even in any degree approaching it, being 
within thirty or forty miles ; it is completely bare of trees, except 
along the western ascent, and a few clumps, where soil has accumu- 
lated about loose masses of rock ; it is homogeneous in structure, 
consisting entirely of a fine-grained granite, approaching gneiss in 
appearance. It is easily accessible for survey, on all sides, and of 
tolerably regular sub-hemispherical shape ; pendulums at the summit 
and base, or on the opposite sides of the base, could, with but little 
difficulty, be brought into galvanic connection by wire. The chief 
defect, and it must be acknowledged that it is a great one, is want of 
mass, the summit being only 630 feet above the base. A rough 
survey and subsequent calculation might determine whether the 
amount of effect on the pendulum would render the experiment worth 
the trial. About 1200 or 1500 feet of wire would be sufficient to 
connect the pendulums, at summit and base, and 4000 probably more 
than enough to connect them, when on opposite sides of the base. 

Prof. GiBBES also remarked, that the coincidence at intervals of the 
beats of a solar and of a sidereal chronometer, would enable us to 
deduce a result not directly connected with the present subject, but of 
sufficient interest to be mentioned here, particularly as he had never 
seen it remarked, though, doubtless, it must have occurred to others. 


As 365 solar days are equal to about 366 sidereal days, the seconds 
must bear the same ratio, and if the time-keepers beat seconds, the 
sidereal one will gain on the solar one l-366th of a second at each beat, 
and coincidences must occur at intervals of about 366 seconds, or eve- 
ry 6 min. 36 sec. ; if the time-keepers beat half-seconds, at every 3 min. 
18 sec. As the beats of the chronometers approach coincidence, the 
intervals between them diminishes until at a particular instant, this 
interval becomes inappreciable to the ear, and the coincidence appears 
complete. But it is only apparent, for it will last for several seconds, 
depending on the delicacy of the ear ; and the middle of this interval 
of duration of apparent coincidence, is to be taken as the most proba- 
ble instant of true coincidence, hi his own case, this interval was 6 
seconds, or at the least 5 seconds. Taking the half of the larger of 
these intervals, it appears that for 3 seconds before and after true co- 
incidence, the iQterval between the beats is too small to be appreciable 
to the ear, and as in 3 seconds the sidereal chronometer gains 3-366ths 
or about l-120th of a second, it folloiprs, that the smallest interval 
that can be perceived by the ear, between blows, such as those given 
by the teeth of the balance wheel, on the pallets of the escapement, 
is the l-120th of a second. The ear of others may perhaps be more 
delicate in this respect. 

The sixth paper read, was 

On the existence in some individuals of two Insensible Spots on the 
Retina^ 5y Prof. Lewis B. Gibbes, of College of Charleston^ {S, C.) 

In 1668, Edme Mabiottb, of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, 
pointed out the remarkable &ct that rays of light falling on a parti- 
cular portion of the bottom of the eye, in its normal state, do not 
produce the usual visual impressions. This spot, insensible to visual 
impressions, is always found on the inner or nasal side of the axis 
of vision, and, in the opihion of Mariottb, coincided with the point 
at which the optic nerve entered the eye. This has never been con- 
tested, I believe, nor do I now propose doing so, but I do not know 
that any one, from Mariottb's time to the present, has called atten- 
tion to the fact of the existence of other insensible spots of a amUar 
character, and as one of my own eyes, the right,- presents this pecu- 
liarity, I desire to bring the facts before the Association. 


TUs diagram will serve to illustrate these facts, and must be placed 
before the eye, at a distance from its anterior sur&ce equal to five 
times the space intercepted on . the horizontal line of the diagram, 
between the point where the vertical line cuts it and the point indi- 
cated by a mark on the right. This distance for the accompanying 
diagram will he about nine inches. 

i£, with the head erect, I close the left eye and direct the axis of 
vision of the right eye to the intersection of the horizontal and ver- 
tical lines of the diagram — that point being held at the proper distance 
already indicated— the large circular spot in the diagram, on the 
right of the axis of vision, and whose centre is a little below the 
horizontal line, becomes invisible, as was shown by Mabiottx. This 
would happen in all eyes at the same distance, or nearly so, from 
the diagram. But, besides this, in my own cose, the second spot, 
of an oval form, also disappears completely. This spot lies on the 
left side of the axis of vision, and above the horizontal line, of the 
form of an ellipse, whose axes are in the ratio of about 3 to 5, the 
longer axis directed towards the point where the axis of vision pierces 
the plane of the diagram, and the centre of the ellipse distant from 
that point about the length of the longer axis. The corresponding 
insensible portion of the eye is of course on the riffht side of the 
axis of vision — that is, on the oulHde of it, and below it, and of 
similar proportions and position. No other similar spot in that eye 
has been perceived, and the left eye is in the normal ^ condition. 

It is probable that there are other individuals with a simile pecu- 
liarity, though none are known to me. Such a peculiarity mi^it 
long remain unperceived until attention was called to it by accident, 
or by the mention of its existence in others. My attention was 


called to my own defect in the summer of 1841, while vicmng wiu 
the telescope the system of Saturn. The sixth satellite (Titan, i: 
Herschel's nomenclature,) was in that part of its orbit in ^whidi i: 
appeared, in the telescope, to be below the planet and a little to tk 
right of a vertical line passing through it. Whenever the axis d 
vision was directed to the satellite, the planet disappeared entirely, 
or its place was occupied by a cloudy light resembling that producei 
when its image in the eye was caused to fall on the point of entrance 
of the optic nerve. This apparently sudden loss of sight vras not a 
little startling, though the planet re-appeared when vision -was directed 
to it or to other parts of the field. I feared an attack of J^ransim 
amaurosis, such as 1 had previously experienced onee or twice. 
depending upon a deranged state of the digestive system, or else lui 
attack more serious than before ; but 1 continued in my usual state 
of health, nor did any further change in the condition of the e}> 
follow. No change has since ensued. Examined frequently sine* 
that date, the eye has always presented the same condition. 

Conjectures as to its cause may be made, based on the different 
explanations that have been given of the insensibility of the other 
portion of the bottom of the eye and upon the causes assigned for 
certain forms of amaurosis, but anatomical examination would k 
requisite to decide in the case. 

Dr. Myddelton Michel, of Charleston, (S. C.) then read his 
paper, the seventh and last this morning, on the reproduction of 
the Opossum ; the following is an abstract of his conclusions : 

Researches on the Generation and Development of the Opossum, — Li- 
delphys Virginiana, By Myddelton Michel, M.D. 

These researches were confined to the determination of the sea- 
sons of rut, manner of copulation, period of gestation, condition of 
membranes, support of embryo during gestation and anatomy of 
uterine mucous membrane, parturition and transfer of young to the 

' Conclusions. — ^The period of rut extends from December to June. 

In domesticity the young have been met with in January, February, 

i different periods of March, at the end of April,- in the middle of 

j May, and once as late as June. 

i On the morning of the 28th January, 1847, at half^ast 8 o'clock, 


on repairing to the cage in which were placed a male and female, the 
male was found in pursuit of the other, leaping upon her back, after 
the manner of other quadrupeds. This continued for nearly an hour, 
when sexual ardor being fully established, the male, embracing her 
with his front legs around the neck, threw her upon her right side. 
Both upon their right sides, the body of the male was so bent as to 
bring the organ of intromission (still somewhat everted) withm 
reach of the vulva. The act lasted a few minutes ; there was no 
prolonged attachment between the sexes, yet there are no seminal 
vesicles. Gestation in one experiment, lasted fourteen days and 
seventeen hours. On the night of the 15th of February, 1847, the 
pregnant female, which served for the determination of the above- 
mentioned fact, was found standing on her hind legs ; her body was 
much bent, and propped up against the comer of the cage ; her 
muzzle in immediate contact with the cloacal opening, which was red, 
tumefied and distended ; a young appeared at the opening,'and was 
conveyed by the mother's mouth to the pouch, or perhaps was rather 
licked in, as her tongue seemed busily employed within, around and 
about the pouch. 

The young are e^elled first into the vaginal cul-de-sac, in which 
they remain for a short time, on the contraction of which they are 
forced along the vaginal canals one by one ; parturition is thus very 
much prolonged, owing to the circuitous route which the young are 
obliged to take, and the delay thereby occasioned between the birth 
of each is the object of the peculiar modification of these parts in 
this animal, as it affords the requisite time employed in the convey- 
ance of the young to the pouch and their adaptation to the teat. 

Ova were detected on three occasions in the uterus. On two 
occasions they had only reached their blastodermic evolution ; the 
area germinativa existed in one case, when five ova were discovered 
on one side and seven on the other. These were the size of those of 
a rabbit at the same stage of development ; they were detected in 
the uterus by Dr. Baohman, and are already mentioned in the pro- 
ceedings of the Academy of Sciences. They consisted of a vitelline 
membrane and an undivided blastoderma. 

The third case presented some thirteen embryos in the uteri, and 
these had nearly completed their development. They were easUy 
discernible through a transparent, non-vascular chorion, deprived 
of any trace of chorial vUlosities and entirely independent of the 
cavity which contained them, and in a great measure concealed by 


what we regard as the hypertrophied mucous membrane of tbe uterus 
They rolled with ease out of the uterine cavity, disclosing the absence 
of any attachment to the walls of the uterus. The embryos were 
nearly four lines in length and two in breadth across the abdomen ; 
the anterior extremities were in every particular similar to their 
condition in the mammary foetus ; the posterior extremities were 
mere davate projections from either side. The laminae ventrales had 
nearly united through the whole length, and were entirely complete 
in the cervical region — ^no branchial clefts were, therefore, present ; 
the opened mouth exhibited a perfectly formed tongue. Syes as 
they are at birth, covered by a pellucid membrane ; no traces of 
ears. The heart was seen through the ununited walls of the thorax. 
There was no placenta ; the chorion transparent, non-vascular, and 
without villosities; the entire specimen readily left the uterus. 
Between the incompletely united walls of the abdomen, and near the 
caudal extremity, proceeded a short chord of about two lines is 
length, composed of the stem of the allantois and the pedicle of the 
umbilical vesicle ; both were united so closely together, and sur- 
rounded by the amnios, that it was impossible to trace the allantoic 
element of this short chord to the bladder, which had already its 
independent existence. The allantois hung pendant at the side of the 
embryo, with evidence of some vascularity, much smaUer than the 
vitelline sac, and had no connection with the chorion. The umbilical 
veside was inordinately large — as large as we meet it in those 
embryos which present a wide abdominal opening, branchial clefts, 
budding extremities, and an allantois just rising as a diverticulum 
from the caudal extremity of the intestine. 

When we take into consideration the rapidity of development in 
the uterus and the limited period of gestation in this animal, in aU 
probability, in twenty>four hours these embryos would have attained 
the entire condition of mammary foetuses. For so momentary an 
existence an ovo-uterine or placental attadmient could not be required, 
and would be a superabundant prodigality of structure were the 
establishment of this condition possible in so limited a time. 

The non-villous condition of the ehorion ci these embryos 1 regard 
as a circumstanoe of the greatest interest, for the villous assumption 
of the chorion is preparatcury to a placental development, and here 
we meet with none of those cellular diorial c^Esets belonging to 
placental animals. 

Now, these villi are the production of a v^etative cellular growth 


similar to that of the structures of the embryo itself, and their exist- 
ence is prior to the formation of blood-vessels, and therefore not 
dependent upon a placental structure. Though they subsequently 
form sheaths for the ramifying vessels of the allantois, their office is 
far more important at an earlier period, for, like vegetable cells, they 
are engaged in supplying the ovum with nutrition derived from the 
secretions of the uterine glands, and I think I may affirm they bear 
an inverse ratio to the development ot these latter. 

An examination of the uterus in these animals furnishes much that 
will satisfactorily explain their oi^anization without the aid of a 
placenta. It is now generally conceded, not only that a mucous 
membrane exists in the uterus of all animals, but that it possesses a 
remarkable glandular character. These utricular glands imder the 
form of tubuli, arranged side by side perpendicularly to the surface 
of the uterus, vary considerably in different animals ; though sup- 
posed to exist only among ruminantia, I have satisfied myself of their 
presence in the human subject, and I believe them to exist of neces- 
sity in all animals ; they have been observed in many. In none are 
they so enormously developed as in our opossimi, as might almost 
have been inferred from a knowledge of their relations to the chorial 
villosities. Indeed, the absence of such villi in the opossum would 
have induced me to search for some such arrangement, had not a 
knowledge of the circumstance preceded my acquaintance with their 
ova. There is an apparent balance in the development of the tt^uli 
uierini and the chorial villosities — ^as the latter increase the former 
diminish, and vice versa. 

On opening the uteri during gestation, they are found filled with a 
gelatinous or mucilaginous secretion, the product of the uterine 
glands, which are seen waving perpendicularly from the walls of the 
uterus to the free surface of its lining membrane. In the midst of 
these titbuli and their secretions, it is difficult to detect the ova upon 
their entrance into the uterus. These delicate transparent vesicles 
become entirely imbedded in the mucous membrane and elude our 
search, or are injured before they are removed. This is an admirable 
provision f6r ova whose absorbent powers would otherwise have been 
singularly diminished through want of villosities, while these are no 
longer of use as supports to the jutting blood-vessels of an organized 
allantois and placenta. 
This discovery has convinced me that the ova of these didelphians 


possess, during the short period of their uterine changes, a rich 
source of nutrition, abundantly sufficient for the plastic operations 
of cell-life, which alone are called into requisition during the early 
periods of development, and with which elaborate secretion tiiese 
embryos are supplied without the assistance of villi. These villi, 
when they exist, are an aggregate of nucleated cells, endowed, as 
agents of absorption, with the power of attracting the nutritive 
particles from the plasma or cyto4>la8tenui into which they are 
plunged ; but when the maternal secretory product is so abundant, 
and the glandular apparatus so exuberantly developed, the free 
surface of the cellular chorion is all-sufficient to absorb what it 
required no expenditure of structure to obtain, and may convey it 
thus to the interior of the egg, where, being in contact with the 
blood-vessels of the vitelline sac and allantois, themselves developed 
from cells, and enjoying the vital properties of cells, it may enter 
directly into the blood of the embryo and be assimilated to its 
wants. It is proper to observe that the large size of the vitelline 
sac offers a surface to the omphalomesenteric vessels which may also 
aid the supply of alible materials by a process dissimilar from nutri- 
tion, through means of the yolk, but presenting, perhaps, a transitional 
step towards that process in birds. 

Such, then, is the source from whence the embryonal didelph derives 
that accession of materials required after the vegetative repetition of 
cell-birth has elaborated its various systems of oigans, and it is just 
at the moment when a more intimate relation and enei^etic re-action 
between parent and offspring is required, for perfecting the latter, 
that birth takes place. 

Prof. AoAssiz said that the subject was important and interesting, 
and that yet fuller detaUs were required with regard to the mem- 
branes in the foetal state, and to the microscopic examination of the 

Dr. Bachman said that according to his observations, the young 
opossums just taken from the uterus, were vigorous enough to roll 
themselves over on the surface of the table on which he Had laid 
them ; and, in one case, the little animal rolled to the edge of the 
table and fell on the floor. They also were able to exert suction by 
the mouth, as was proved by their drawing in some of the cotton 
wool in which they were laid, threads or slender rolls of which, two 
or three inches in length, were drawn out of their mouths. 


An invitation was received from W. B. PRiiraLB, Esq., to meet 
at his residence to-morrow, at 8 P. M. 

, Adjourned, on motion, at 3 P. M., to meet again in the evening, 
at 6 P. M. 

LEWIS R. GIBBES, Secretary. 

Seco7id Day, Wednesday, March 13, 1850. 

The Association met according to adjournment at 6 P. M., Prof. 
Baohs in the Chair. 

The Standing Committee reported the programme for this eve- 
ning, and also nominated the following gentlemen for membership, 
who were unanimously elected : — Dr, Whitridok, Dr. Charles Da- 
vis, Eev. Dr. Smyth, William Gregg, Esq., all of Charleston, S. C. 

Lieut. Maury was called to the Chair, and the first paper read. 

On the PcdoBOzaic Rocke of Alabama ; by Prof M. Tuomby, of Tus- 

calooaa, Alabama, 

[Not received.] 

On the peculiar sensations produced by a Damp Atmosphere ; by W. 

L. Jones, M.D., of Athens, Ga, 

The object of this paper, was to show that the chilliness of damp 
winds in winter is not due to an increased conducting power of moist 
air, there being no reason to suppose that the vapour of water has a 
greater conducting power than air itself, and direct experiments 
showing that its power in this respect is very limited. That the de- 
crease in the amount of oxygen present when the barometer is low 
is a '^ vera causa," but not adequate to explain the phenomenon. 
That the experiments of Beoquerel and Brbschet, would seem to 
indicate that diminished activity of the skin, consequent upon de- 
creased exhalation from the surface, lessens the calorifying power, 
and that a damp atmosphere, by diminishing evaporation, might 


produoe the same effect. It also ^niggests that ae the atmoq^faereis 
positively electrified in dry weather, and negatively in damp, these 
different electrical states may be in part productive of the phenome- 
non in question. , 

Remarks on the Fossil Equv^; by Robert W. Gibbbs, M.D., of 

Columbia^ S. C, 

At the last meeting of the Association, I exhibited several speci- 
mens of teeth of the horse found fossil in SouthTCarolina. Since 
then I have received others, which indicating its existence in various 
parts of the United States, furnish additional evidence of more than 
a single species. 

The existence of the horse in a fossil state has long been known 
in England and on the Continent of Europe. In the History of Ox- 
fordshire, by Dr. Plot, (1676) there is a very good figure given of 
one found there. Sir John Hill, in his History of Fossils, (1741,) 
mentions them as frequent in company with the teeth of elephants. 
CuviSB also mentions this latter fact as settling beyond doubt that 
they belonged to fossil spedes, and refers to many early notices of 

After examining many in comparison with those of our horse, 
mule, ass and quagga, Cuvisr could find no fixed character of diffe- 
rence on which he was willing to base a distinction from our pre- 
sent species. H. Von Meyeb and Dr. Kaup have pointed out dis- 
tinctions which are recognized by Prof. Owen as well-marked, and 
by these g^itlemen have several species been described. 

EiCHWALD has also pointed out some important differences in the 
form of the skull which deserve to be noticed.* Marcel de SerrebI 
makes distinctions in the form of the cranium and other bones, in 
the relative proportions of the teeth, and in the position of the incisor 
teeth and canines; but, after careful comparison with the living 
species, declines to separate the fossil, as he can fix on no absolute 
specific character of difference. 

The distinction chiefly recognized by Prof. Owen in the fossils 
of Oreston is in the narrow transverse diameter of the lower molars 
when compared with the recent horse. 

* Nova acta Acad. Nat. Cohos., vol. 9, p. 681. 

t Recherches sur lea osBemens hnmatiles des GayenieB de Lunel-viel. 


In that from South America, submitted to him by Mr. Darwin, 
(figured and described in l^e voyage of the Beagle,) a greater curva- 
ture is reoogcdzed inwardly, and not laterally, as in the recent species. 
On this character he bases a different species, JEJ, curvidens. I here 
exhibit a specimen of this curved tooth from Missouri, and part of 
another from Ashley river, South-Carolina. 

Dr. Lund, in 1844,* in his account of his discovery of numerous 
fossil bones in the caverns of Brazil, recognized two species of Horse 
differing from that now in existence, and he traces distinctions in the 
teeth. He mentions the fact, but does not state in what respect 
they differ. 

Dr. Leidt, in the proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, adopting the characters admitted by Prof. Owbn as 
distinctive, has established a new American species from Big Bone 
Ldck, (Kentucky,) much larger than any noticed in Europe, which he 
calls Equus Americanus, He has also described a second species 
from Mississippi, which he considers as resembling M curvidens. 
Both are from drift or alluvium. 

I offer to the notice of the Association several specimens of JE. 
AfMriecmuSj (Lbidy,) from the Pliocene of Darlington, (S. C.) where 
they are associated with the bones of Mastodon ; another specimen 
is from the alluvium of Skidaway island, and another from an old 
slough in Richland district, (S. C.) probably a former bed of Con- 
garee river. It was found in making a deep excavation for a trunk^ 
below a bank, seventeen feet below the surface. Another specimen 
is from the bank of the Potomac, associated with a large molar of 

The last specimen to which I invite your attention appears to me 
to differ from all previously described, in the thinness and minute 
plications of the enamel folds. Prof. Owbn has described a spedes 
based on the plications as M plicidens, and traces its character as 
allied to the Hippotherium of Kaup — E, primigenius of Von Meyer 

My specimen was found in a geological position different from 
any specimen of Equus previously discovered. I cut it from a mass 
of Eocene marl from Ashley river, firmly imbedded with the remains 
of Manatus and bones of Turtles, in marl from the plantation of John 
A. Kambay, Esq. In the European species the Miocene is the oldest 

* Mem. de la Soe. Royale des Antiq. du Nord, 1847 

68 PBOOftSDizros of the ambricau assooiatiok 

deposit where the teeth ofJSqutu have been found. For this reason, 
and for the difierence in the folds, I am disposed to consider it a new 
species peculiar to the ^cene^ if it be not identical with the JS. pUei- 
dens of Owen. 

In examining the characters of the teeth of the horse from the 
Alluvium^ Pliocene and Miocene deposits, there seem to be marked 
distinctions in the folds of the enamel — ^in the former thidcer and 
less plicated, and in the latter thinner and more plicated. The fact 
that no mammalian remains have heretofore been found in the M>cene 
marl of this country, except Basilosaurus and ManatuSy is not an 
argument against the probability of our finding pachyderms, as Mr. 
OwBN has found them in the Eocene of England, of which he has 
many genera. 

This tooth of Equue was not found in the recent formation from 
the washing of the marl bed, but in the solid marl itself 

On this paper, the following remarks were made by F. S. Holmbs, 
Esq., of Charleston, S. C. 

Mr. Holmes remarked, that he had been living upon the Ashley 
about ten years, and during the last six had carefully examined 
every exposure of marl upon the river bank, and upon the creeks 
which empty into it; that the locality from whence Dr. Gibbes had 
sent him the specimen of a tooth of fossil Equus he had examined 
often — ^had collected many specimens of teeth of several genera 
from it, and was quite familiar with the surroimding coimtry ; that 
he had opened several pits in the marl bed, one of them seventy feet 
in length, twenty wide, and twenty feet deep, and several ten and 
twelve feet deep, but had never discovered a single specimen of the 
remains of EqutiSy or any other quadruped in the marl, nor had any 
of his friends with whom he had conversed, and of whom he had 
particularly enquired in regard to this matter, it being a subject in 
which he had been much interested for some time. 

Further, that the beds of sands and clays, etc., which are super- 
imposed upon the marl are very rich in these remains, and as many 
as twenty genera have been taken, from them on the banks of the 
Ashley ; that the surface of the Eocene marl is filled with holes, 
and into these holes the detrital matter of the upper beds, with 
their fossils, has been deposited. He doubts the propriety of re- 


ferring these remains to the JSocem but thinks that thej will, upon 
further investigation, prove to belong to the Pliocene or a still more 
recent formation. 

Dr. B. W. GiBBBS then read his papers on the Northern Fossil 
SUpJuu^ on Mastodon angustidena^ and on fossils common to seve* 
rai formations. 

Memarks on the Northern Elephas of Prof. Agassiz ; by Robert W. 


At the meeting of the Association, held at Cambridge, in Septem- 
ber last, Prof. Agassiz exhibited a molar tooth and two tusks of a 
new species of Elephas^ found in Vermont. 

The narrowness of the molar, with extreme thinness of the plates, 
together with a remarkable slendemess of the tusks and difference 
in their curve, induced him to consider that the species to which it 
belonged differed from Elephaa primigenius. On my return from 
that meeting, I stopped a day at Wilmington, N. C, and there had 
submitted to my inspection, by Dr. W. C. Willkins, a molar, 
much broken, of this new EUphae^ from Duplin Co., N. C. The 
tooth when found was entire, but careless handling had caused it 
to crumble. I am indebted to the gentleman named for what re- 
mains, being about two-thirds of the specimen. 

It is therefore settled, that there are in the Southern States both 
species of JSlephas, as the E, primigenius has been found in Geor- 
gia, by J. Hamilton Coupbr, Esq. 

JRemarks on Mastodon angtistidens, by Robert W. Gibbes, M.D. 

It is well known to the members that there has been for several 
years some doubt existing whether the remains of Mastodon angus- 
tidens have been found in the United States. The whole evidence 
of the presence of this species rests on the tooth now in possession 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences, the history of which has been 
so earnestly and laboriously traced by our excellent associate, the 
venerable Prof. Warren, of Boston, who, I may be permitted to 
say, has identified his name with that of the Mastodon on this conti- 
nent, by his liberality in procuring, for the benefit of science, the 
finest specimen in existence. We owe to Dr. WAanBN the minute 

70 PBOOBVDiiroe or tbb ammmqam ABBoewnois 

investigation of the circumstanoes oonnected with the existeaoe of 
M, angusHdens in the United States. His researches are too ^well 
known for me to repeat them here. I would merely state that; llie 
locality of the tooth alluded to is a few miles from Baltimore. 

I lately received from Dr. Foreman, of Washington, a box of 
fossils, among which I discovered a fragment which I immediately 
recognized as of the enamel of Mastodon anguatidens. I felt much 
interested in the fact, and immediately wrote to him to know from 
him its origin and history. It seemed another link in the evidence 
of the existence of Jf. angitstidens. In reply, I was much disappointed 
to hear from him that it was foimd at Baltimore among the rubbish 
of ballast and trash used iu filling up an old wharf, now covered by 
the tide and known as the Sunk Wharf. There being fossils of 
European origin among the material of which the wharf was com- 
posed, it is, unfortunately, impossible to say whether it be of foreign 
origin, or whether it belongs to the neighborhood. It is the only 
specimen of Jf. angugtidens^ exo^t the toot^ alluded to, found in 
the United States, and the fact of its having been found at Baltimore 
has made me notice it here, as the whole knowledge of the existence 
of this species in our country is associated with Baltimore. 

Darwin, in his Travels in South America, mentions M, angusHdent 
as found with the remains of Eqwm^ Megatkerium, Mylodon^ etc. As 
we have these remains in Georgia and other parts of the northern 
portion of our continent, we may reasonably hope yet to discover 
also M, anguatidins. 

FosaiU common to severed Formations^ observed by Robert W. 


Ik my cabinet I have a lai^e collection of teeth of Squalidffi from 
the United States, among winch I find many common to several 
formations. The fdlowiJ^ catalogue was some time since prepared 
while arranging my specimens : 


OarobMrodoo megalodon, AsASis. Oaleoeeidfr auaor, Asawb.- 

« angiistideiiflk " " adimoiis, '* 

« laacifomus, Gibbss. *' Egartoni, " 

" BolcideDS, AaAssn. " iatidens, '' 

Hemiprifltis aerra, ** " contortua, Gibbbs. 

FOR TffiB AiyVAVOBliBHT Ol* flOtBlfdS. 


Lfamna acummata, 
** cuspidata, 




AaASSiz. Ozyriiina hastalis, 













Carcharodon acatidena> Gibbss. Lamaa cnBjndata, 

Glyphis sabnlata, Agassiz. ** elegans, 

Sphyma lata, " Otodus obUquus, 

" denticulata, '* " appendiculatus, 
Galeocerdo pristodontus. 







Galeocerdo pristodontus, AaASSiz. Lamna cuspidata. 


With regard to this last commimioation, Prof. AeASsns remarked 
that this subject of identity of species proceeding from diifereBt 
formations, must be entirely reconsidered, and that comparisons be- 
tween the formations in Europe and this country, could not be insti- 
tuted without leading frequently to erroneous conclusions. Every 
Ihing in America bears the impress of an older date. Many forms, 
&unal and floral, now existing on the American Continent, are only 
found as fossils in Europe in the tertiary beds. 

Mr. TuoMET. The difference between the different strata of the 
tertiary can be determined by groups of fossils alone, and I think 
there are but few species common to two or more strata. 

The Assodation adjourned to meet at 10 A. M. to-morrow. 

LEWIS R. GIBBES, Secretary. 

pROonDnres or ram AMmaicjof AflsooiAnoF 

7%ird Day^ Thursday, March 14, 1850. 
MORNING session; 

.Pprof. Bachb took the Chair at half past 10 A. M. Minutes of 
last meetmg read and confirmed. Mr. F. S. Holmes was appointed 
an additional Assistant Secretary. 

The following gentlemen, nominated by the Standing Comimttee, 
were elected members : — ^Prof. Henry L. Eustis, of Sdentific School 
at Cambridge, Mass. ; Prof. John A. Porter, do. ; Robert C. Lkwis, 
Shelbyville, Ky. ; George Bliss, Jr., Springfield, Mass. ; Edward 
A. Spooner, Plymouth, Mass. ; Henrt Gourdin, Esq., Charleston, 
8. C. ; BoBT. N. Gourdin, Esq., do. ; Lieut. J. N. Maffit, U. S. N., 
Assistant in Coast Survey. 

The programme having been read. Prof. Moultrie was requested 
to take the Chair, and Dr. Holbrook made his remarks 

On the air bladder of the drum fish, Pogonias Faeciatus, and the 
mechanism by which is produced the sounds emitted by that JUh at 
certain seasons, 

[Not received.] 

Professor Aoabsiz remarked that air-bladders in fish, like lungs in 
higher vertebrates, are in the embryonic state, as it were hernia from 
the intestinal canal, air-bladders being developed from the upper sur- 
face of the alimentary canal, and lungs from the lower ; that the 
ultimate state arising from further changes is different in different 
cases, — ^in one, the air-bladder is finally obliterated altogether, — ^in 
another, it continues to exist, but the connection with the intestinal 
canal is obliterated, — ^in a third case, the air-bladders become cellu- 
lar, and remain connected with the intestinal canal, which is the 
highest state of development. Air-bladders in a limited degree per- 
form the fiinction of respiration. 

Dr. Edmund Ravenel, by permission, called up for further discus- 
sion, that portion of Professor Tuomey's paper, yesterday, which 
related to the coal-fields of Alabama, and pointed out the importance 
of those fields for the purpose of supplying steamers on the Pacific, 


being nearer to those waters than any point where coal is found in 
abundance, and lying on navigable streams. 

Prof. TuoMXY, in reply to queries^ stated, the coal is transported 
to Mobile, and sold there at about (2,75 to $3,00 per ton; its quali- 
ty is highly bituminous. 

Lieut. Maurt called attention to the importance of these coal fields 
on the commerce of the Pacific. As soon as communication across 
the isthmus is fully established, the products brought down the Mis- 
sissippi, from the vast area of the valley of the Mississippi, will find 
their way from the Gulf to the Pacific Coast. Steam navigation is 
necessary there on account of calms, and the coal needed is now 
principally supplied round Cape Horn, at a cost of $16 per ton. The 
demand in two years will probably reach 100,000 tons, and in this 
view, the Alabama Coal fields are of vast importance. 

Prof. AoAssiz asked leave to add a few remarks to those made on 
Dr. R. W. GiBBEs' paper of last evening. He still maintained his 
position that there are very few species, if any, that are common to 
difierent formations; the mistakes that have arisen in this respect 
being attributable to errors in determining the nature of the forma- 
tions. Geologists apply to Zoologists to determine specimens which 
have been taken from difierent localities, and the Zoologist decides 
that they belong to the same species. The Geologist calls some of 
these localities Eocene, and others Miocene, and concludes that cer- 
tain species are identical in different formations ; but that conclusion 
rests with the Geologists. Again, the same rule does not obtain in 
the different classes of the animal or vegetable kingdom, as for in- 
stance, the Algae of Key West, and those of the Mediterranean, in 
very many instances belong to the same species, while the Fishes of 
the one region are quite difierent from those of the other. Also, 
northern species are found in more southern latitudes, but at greater 

Dr. Gould does not believe in the identity of shells from difierent 
oceans, — careful investigations show that they differ. 

Remarks on the same subject were also made by Prof. Tuombt, 
and Dr. Edmund Raveksl. 

74 PBOOBBDnres of thb AMaaaoAX aobogultiov 

At a quarter before one o'clock, the Association took a recess, par- 
suant to order of Standing Committee reported this morning, and al 
one re-assembled, Prof. Bachb taking the Chair, and announcing the 
report of the Standing Committee as follows: 

Diere will be an evening meeting to-morrow, at the Soutii-Caro^ 
lina Hall, at 6 P. M. ; Lieut. Maurt's paper, on the Circulation of 
the Atmosphere, and Prof. Bachb's account of the measurement of 
the base line on Edisto Island, to be the subjects for the meeting. 

The Chair also announced an inyitation from Hon. M. Kino and 
lady for to-morrow evening at 8 o'clock. 

Dr. Jambs Moultris was then requested to take the Chur, and 
Prof. Tuomnr laid before the Association a specimen of a fossil Ibt 
certain reptile, belonging to the genus Leiodon, fifom the cretaceom 
of Alabama. He mentioned the name of the discoverer of the spe>> 
dmen, Prof. Sherman, Howard College, Ala., and made remarks on 
the growth of the teeth, etc. 

Prof. AoABSiz said that he considered the discovery of this fossil, 
one of the most splendid additions to the Palseontolc^j of the Uni'- 
ted States ever made, and that although several parts are yet want- 
ing, it enables us to construct the animal completely. 

Lieut. Maurt read his paper, 

On the Currents of the Atlantic Ocean. 


LiBUT. Maury said that in studying the system of oceanic cinm^ 
lation he had found it necessary to set out with the very obvifms 
and simple prindiple, viz : that from whatever part of the ocean a 
current was found to run, to the same part a current of equal v<^imie 
was obliged to return. 

Upon this principle was established the whole system of curreBis 
and counter-currents. 

He also remarked that it was not necessary to associate with 
oceanic currents the idea that they must of necessity, as on land, 
run from a higher to a lower level. 

So far from this being the case, some correiits c^ tk» sea actuafly 
run up hill, while others run on a level. 

. Hie Guif stream was of the first class. In a pi^er rehd b^re 
the National Institute in 1844 he had shewed that the bottom of the 

rOE TBB ADTAirOSIISirT OF 800908* 75 

Gulf stream was an indined plane, running upwards. If the Gulf 
stream was 200 fathoms deep in the Florida pass, and but 100 
fathoms off Hatteras, it is evident that the bottom would be uplifted 
100 fathoms within that distance, and, therefore, while the bottom 
of the Gulf stream was uphill, the top preserved the water-level, or 
nearly so. 

The currents which run from the Atlantic into the Mediterranean, 
and from the Indian ocean into the Bed sea, were the reverse of this. 
Here the bottom of the current was a water-level, and the top an 
inclined plane, running down hill. 

Lieut. Maurt took the Red sea current as an illustration. That 
sea, he remarked, lies for the most part within a rainless and riveiless 
district. It may be compared to a long and narrow trough. 

Being in a rainless district, the evaporation from it is immense ; 
none of which is returned to it by rivers. 

It is about 1000 miles long ; it lies nearly north and south, and 
extends from latitude 12® or 13*^ to the parallel of 30® north. 

Lieut. Maur7 was not able to state the daily rate of evaporation 
there ; but he thought it might safely be assumed— «and for the illusn 
tration he would assume it — at the rate of two-tenths (0.2 in.) of an 
inch a day. 

Now, if we suppose the current which runs into that sea to average 
from mouth to head 20 miles a day — ^and this was conjectured merely 
for the purpose of illustration also— it would take the water fifty 
days to reach the head of it. If it lose two-tenths of an inch from 
its Bur&oe, by evaporation, it would appear, that by the time it 
reaohed the isthmus of Suez, it would have lost ten inches from its 

Thus the waters of the Red sea ought to be lower at the isthmus 
of Suez than they are at the straits of Babelmandel. They ought 
to be lower from two causes, viz : evaporation and temperature^— for 
the temperature of that sea is necessarily lower at Suez, in latitude 
30®, than at Babelmandel, in latitude 13®. 

To make this quite clear, suppose the channel of the Red sea to 
have no water in it, and a wave ten feet high was to enter the straits 
of Babelmandel^ and was to fbw up this channel at the rate of twenty 
miles a day for fifty days, losing daily, by evaporati<»i^ two*t«iths 
of an inch, it is easy to perceive that at the end of the fiftieth day h 
would not be so high, by ten inches, as it was the first day it octal- 
menced to flow. 


The top of that sea, therefore, is probably an inclined plane. 

But the salt water, which has lost so much of its freshness by 
evaporation, becomes salter, and, therefore, heavier. The lighter 
water at the straits cannot balance the heavier water at the isthmus, 
and the colder and salter, and, therefore, the heavier water, must 
either run out as an under-current, or it must deposit its surplus salt 
In the shape of crystals, and thus gradually make the bottom of the 
Bed sea a salt bed ; or it must abstract all the salt from the ocean — 
and we know that neither the one process nor the other is going on. 
Hence we infer that there is from the Red sea an under or outer 
current, as from the Mediterranean, through the straits of Gibraltar. 

And, to show why there should be an outer and under current 
from each of these two seas, the case was supposed of a long trough, 
opening into a vat of oil, with a partition to keep the oil from run- 
ning into the trough. Now, suppose the trough be filled up with 
wine, on one side of the partition, to the level of the oil. 

The oil is introduced to represent the lighter water, as it enters 
either of these seas from the ocean, and the wine the same water, 
afler it has lost some of its freshness by evaporation, and, therefore, 
become salter and heavier. 

Now, suppose the partition to be raised, what would take placed 
Why, the oil would run in as an upper-current, and the wine would 
run out as an under-current. 

The rivers which discharge in the Mediterranean are not sufficient 
to supply the waste of evaporation — ^and it is by a process similar to 
this that the salt which is carried in from the ocean is returned to it 
again ; were it not so, the bed of that sea would be a mass of solid 

The equilibrium of the seas is preserved by a system of compen- 
sations as exquisitely adjusted as those by which " the music of the 
spheres" is maintained. 

Lieut. Maurt said he had also, on a former occasion, pointed out 
the fact, that, inasmuch as the Gulf stream was a bed of warm water, 
lying between banks of cold water, the warm water was lighter, and) 
therefore, the surface of the Gulf stream was in the shape of a double 
inclined plane, like the roof of a house, down which there was a 
diallow surface or roof current, from the middle, towards either edge 
of the stream. 

This fact had been confirmed in a singular way : A person, who 
had been engaged on the Coast Survey, with observations on the 


Oulf stream, had informed the Lieutenant that when he tried the 

current in a boat, he found it sometimes one way and sometimes 

another, but scarcely ever in the true direction ; whereas, the vessel, 

Tv^hich drew more water, showed it to be constantly in one direction. 

The object of the lecturer was, not to account for the currents of 

the Atlantic, but merely to mention the fact, that he might call the 

attention pf the Association to it, that, though there be well-known 

currents which bring immense volumes of water into the Atlantic, 

Yre know of none which carry it out again, and which, according to 

the principle with which he set out, ought to be found running back 

from that ocean. 

The La Plata and the Amazon, the Mississippi and St. Lawrence, 
with many other rivers, run into this very small ocean, and it is not 
probable that all of these waters are taken up firom it again by 
evaporation ; '^yet the sea is not full." Where does the surplus go? 
The ice-bearing current, from Davis' straits, which is counter to the 
Gulf stream, moves an immense volume of water down towards the 

The ice-bearing current which runs from the Antarctic regions, and 
passes near Cape Horn into the Atlantic, and the LaguUas current, 
which sweeps into it around the Gape of Good Hope, both move 
immense volimies of water, and bear it along also towards the 

This water must get out again, or the Atlantic would be constant- 
ly rising. 

A part of the Gulf stream runs around North Gape into the Arctic 
Ocean. The thermal charts of the Atlantic Ocean now in process of 
construction, under the direction of Lieut. Maury, at the National 
Observatory, prove this, as also do the admirable charts of Prof. 
DovB, of Berlin. 

But the Lecturer proceeded to shew that this current probably 
performs its circuit of the Arctic Ocean, and returns to the Atlantic 
with increased volume. 

There are the rivers of Northern Europe and all the great rivers 
of Asia and America, that empty into the Frozen Ocean, also the 
current from the Pacific Ocean, into Behring's Straits, all these 
sources of supply, serve, in the opinion of the Lieutenant, to swell 
the current down from Baffin's Bay through Davis' Straits into the 

That there was an open water-communication sometimes at least 


hiing's Straits to Baffin's Bay, had, Lieut. Maukt remarited, 
1 but proved by the results of investigations undertak^i 
ro years ago, at the National Observatory, with regard to 
ts, migrations, etc., of the Whale. 

researches were commenced under his direction by Lieut. 
K, and they were conducted in 8U«^ a manner, as to show by 

at the chart, in what parts of the ocean, and what months 
ear, Whales had and had not been seen. 

investigations soon led to the discovery, that to the Right 
the Equator is as a wall of fire, — that that animal is never 
tar it, seldom or never within a thousand miles or more of it, 

fact induced Lieut. Mauky to enquire of the whalemen, 
the Right Whale of the Northern and of the Southern Hera- 
was the same animal. 

nswer was " no." Tha Right Whale of the latter region, as 
d by these men, is a small p^e animal, the lai^est acaroely 
more than fifty barrels of oil. Whereas, that of the North- 
in is a large dark animal, yielding frequently to the tdngle 
arda of two hundred barrels. 

t this time the whale-^p Superior returned from a voy^ 
Behriog's Stnuts, where she also found the Right Whale of 
th Pacific. 

&ct induced the further inquiry, as to whether the Right 
of Behring's Straits and the Right Whale of Davis' Straits 
) same animal. For since the fact has been established that 
it Whale of the North Faciiic could not cross the Equator, 
efore could not get into the North Atlantic by either of the 
reply in the affirmative to this inquiry would be another link 
liain of circumstancial evidence, going to prove the existence 
ailed North- West Passage. 

answer from the whalemen in this instance, was, in efTect, 
re not had an opportunity of comparing the two animals, ex- 
er long intervals, but, so far as we can judge, they are the 
h." So far as those other facts go, it would appear probable 
re is, at times, at least an open water 'Communication be- 
ne two straits ; for the instincts of the Whale, one might 
, would prevent hica from sounding under Icebergs, neither 
i pass under barriers of great depth or breadth. Seeing that 
uns through Behring's Straits from the Padfio, as well as 


mrouud the Capes, into the Atlantic, where, there&nre, was the es- 
cape-current from the Atlantic? 

The Trade Winds, Lieut. Maurt was prepared to show, were the 
great evaporating winds. They were the winds, which, returning 
from the Polar r^ons, deprived of all the moisture which the hyper- 
borean dew points could compress from them, first came in contact 
with the surface of the earth, and consequently with an evaporating 
surface, when they were first felt as trades, and where, therefore, they 
were dry winds. 

Now could the vapor taken up by these winds so increase the salt- 
ness of this sea in the trade wind region, as to make the water there 
though warmer, yet specifically heavier, than that below, and also 
than that within the regions of the variable winds and of " constant 
precipitation?" If so, might we not have the anomaly of a warm 
under current in the South Atlantic Ocean, for that was the only 
place of escape for a counter current from the Atlantic ? 

Lieut. Walsh, who had been sent out by the Government, in the 
schr. Tafiet/j to make certain observations in connection with Lieut. 
Maury's researches concerning the winds and currents of the Ocean 
had been instructed, among other things, to examine for such a cur- 

Remarks were made by Dr. A. A. Gould, and Prof Agassiz. 
The latter asked who now is to be regarded as the discoverer of the 
Southern Whale, mentioned by Lieut. Maury, he who had pointed 
out the existence of a new species by careful investigation, of what- 
ever kind, or he who shall first describe it zoologically. This case 
is a good lesson, said he, on the fancied importance of the name of 
the first describer. 

Prof W. H. Harvey, of Trinity College, Dublin, then entertained 
the Association with observations on the Marine Flora of the Atlan- 
tic States. There exists a greater degree of similarity on the Ma- 
rine Flora of the two sides of the Atlantic, than in their Marine 
Faima, from the fiicility with which the spores of the Algae may be 
transported to a great distance by natural agencies. But, from the 
rise of the isothermal lines on the European side, the species of low 
latitudes in America are similar to those of higher latitudes in 
Europe ; those of Key West, for instance, in latitude 24% are similar 
to those of the Mediterranean. It is not yet possible to mark out 


With predsioii the geognj^iical dtstrihatioii of the A]^ aloii^ die 
oosst, hot di£feraioes tomj be percdved in the Msrine Flon of the 
regioii iMMth <^ Otpe Cod, that <^ Long lahmd Sound, that of Charles- 
ton Harbor, and that of Key West. The Fkmi <^ eadi of these 
regions was ilhistrated bj numeroiis dried flpecimens of great beantj. 

In re^j to a question b j Ueot. Maurt, wheth^ the sargasso 
weed was fixmd in the Padfie, and to one ^om ProL Bachs, wheth^ 
a marked change was not found at Ci^ Hatt^as in die Flora of the 
Coast, ^tq€ Haktit said that the pres^it state (^knowledge would 
not fumi^ answers to these questions. 

Prof Bachk said that these queries showed the advantage of a 
g«i»al meeting over sectional meetings, in cases whoe diluent 
branches of science toudi dosel j on eadi oth^, as in the relaticm <^ 
currents to distribution of marine plants and animaK Pro£ Bachx 
and Lieut. Maukt added interesting remarks on the Gulf stream and 
on the cold currmts whidi run in connexion with it. 

Adjourned at half past 2, to meet at 6 P. M. 

LEWIS R GIBBES, Seertiary. 

Tkir4 Day, Tkunday, Mmrtk 14, 1850. 


Pkor. Bachk took the Qiair at half past six. Mr. Jomr Bmnr, 
of Boston, ncsninated by the Standing Committee, was elected a 

Dr. RoaxBT W. Gnsis was called to the Clair, and the first pa- 
pi^- w^ r^ftd. 

Om At Comporatift ReHettii^ Pomtr of tke pimmeis Mmn, JmpUer 
mnd Sattgnk; hf Pro£ Lkwk R. Gmn, ^* Cofk^t cf Ckmrk$- 

Amosg the phocometrie problems that haTe been proposed, wil 
rekidon to t&e light of the heaTenly bodies^ 1 do not kno^ that dtt 
comparatiTe reftectiiig power of the planets has jet found a (JaeeL 
1^ acteBti*:^! was call<^i to the subject eight or ten years aoMe at 
omt oi Ae oppcsdoos of Mars, by the remark Aat Mbs at tkat 
umtt was as bright as Jupiter at hb oppositioa. b the itmnn ot 



photometric apparatus adapted to the inquiry, the only method of 
proceeding was to make use of the power of the eye to estimate 
with considerable accuracy of the equality of two lights, though its 
judgments be very erroneous with regard to the ratio of two lights 
of unequal intensity, to wait for those positions of any two of the 
planets, at which they would, in the course of their periodic varia- 
tions in brilliancy, appear equally brilliant, and from the proper 
data, compute their respective reflecting power. This method, as 
may be supposed, furnishes few opportunities for comparison, and at 
irregular intervals, unfavorable therefore to regular pursuit of the 
subject, but some of the results derived are worthy of mention. 

Mars, from the great variations in brilliancy it undergoes, is best 
adapted for effecting comparisons between the planets, being at times 
brighter than Jupiter, and at others comparable with Mercury. The 
red color of its light is a difficulty in the way of a proper compari- 
son of lights, which, however, is unavoidable by any photometric 
method at present used. The principles and data used in the calcu- 
lation are as follow : — ^The apparent light of a planet is propor- 

the area of its great circle 

tional to ; 

(its distance from the earth X its distance from the sun)^ 

the mean distance of the Earth from the Sim is taken as the unit of 
distance ; the area of Mars at the unit of distance from Earth 
as unit of area ; the light of Mars at unit of distance from Sun and 
Earth as unit of light. 

Mercury, s^mi-diameter, . . 
Venus, do. . . 

Mars, do. . . 

Jupiter, Equat. semi-diameter. 

Polar do. 

Mean do. 

Saturn, Equat. semi-diameter. 

Polar do. 

Mean do. 

Ring, Exterior semi-diameter. 
Interior do. 
















The preceding table gives the dimensions of the planets in seconds, 
at^the unit of distance, derived from the Nautical Almanac for 1836, 


tnd the dimeDsions of Saturn's Ring at the same 
;e 315 of Hkbbchkl'b Aatronomy, London, 1849, 
>teaBed in the above unit, derived from those data. 
id, however, that the jaeaa dietance of Saturn used 
a d.^SSTT, is Less than that employed in Boutasd's 

■diameters of Jupiter and Saturn are geometrical 
.heir equatorial and polar semi-diameters rcapec- 
i semi'4liameters of circles equal to them in area, 
area is not illuminated, it muat be multiplied by 
' the part illuminated, the diameter being taken aa 
. the «m. tHng by <' + °»- ""^ P^'") 

1 as unity. In the case of the King of Saturn, tha 
tiplied by the sine of the angle of elevation of the 
ilaue of the Ring, as seen from Saturn, that is by 
Nautical Almanac. The dates of observation and 
nilation are as follow : 

Mars xun Jopiter. 

liars, at opposition, was judged 
it hia last opposition ; compari- 

from memory, not held as of ^„,. ,„,.,. 

2.087 0.848 2.455 

Mars equal to Jupiter, both at 
hough not near ; Jupiter being 
y dawn, to be regarded as some- 

, 2.171 0.705 8.079 

fara and Jupiter nearly equally 

certainly the brighter, . . 1.980 0.631 ai40 

Mars and Jupiter now equally 
ppositioR, .... 2.266 0.749 3.025 
ervations, the brightness of Mars, calculated on the 
ual reflective powers, ought to be about three times 
but, as observation shows that they were nearly 
follows that the reflecting power of Jupiter is as 
I that of Mars. If we reject the first observation, 
s not greatly discordant, we may take 3 as the 

power of Jupiter, that of Mars being unity. 

for thb advancshsnt of 8ciehce. 83 

Mars and Saturn. 


1841, Oct. 17, Mars equal to Saturn in brillian- j^j^^g. baturh. 
cy at time of conjunction, .... 0.203 0.062 2.952 

1843, Oct. 16, Mars and Saturn near conjunc- 
tion, and not very unequal, but Mars certainly the 
brighter, 0.425 0.065 6.206 

1849, June 22, Mars and Saturn equally bright, 
about a month past conjunction, . . . 0.211 0.048 4.213 


In these observations from the sum of the areas of Saturn and the 
King (the latter area diminished in the ratio above stated) has been 
subtracted that portion of the surface of the Ring concecJed by the 
planet, and that of the planet concealed by the Ring. Taking the 
first and last of these observations, the only two obtained in which 
the planets were judged equal, it would appear that Saturn reflects 
light three and a half times more powerfully than Mars, and, there- 
fore, somewhat more powerfully than Jupiter. 

The observations on which the above comparisons rest, are defec- 
tive in not having been pursued in each case from such time as one 
of the pair of planets observed appeared the brighter, until the other 
appeared the brighter, and thus bringing within known limits the 
epoch of equality of brightness. This arises, in some degree, from 
the uncertainty when these epochs would arrive. In the subsequent 
computations, also, has been omitted the unequal extinction of light, 
arising from the difference of the lengths of the paths of the rays 
through the atmosphere. This source of error was eliminated as far 
as possible by comparing the planets when at high and nearly equal 

Despite these defects, it seems safe to draw the following conclu- 
sions from the above results : 

That it is certain that Saturn and Jupiter reflect light more power- 
fully than Mars, including under the term " reflecting power " all the 
agencies at the surface of the planet that affect the light in its course 
from the Sun to the planet, and thence to the Earth : 

That it is probable that the reflecting power is the greater the 
more distant the planet from the Sun : 

That these results will serve to predict the epochs of equality of 
light, and thus prepare for observation. 

Attempts have been made to compare the planets Jupiter and 


Venus, but it is difficult to find them in proper positions when nearly 
equal in light, and the proximity of the latter to the horizon and to 
twilight, at the times of observation, are great difficulties in the way 
of a proper comparison.* 

Prof. Bachs then read the following paper : 

Report of F. dk Pourtales, Assistant U. S. Coast Survey, on the 
Distribution of the Foraminiferce on the Coast of New-Jersey, as 
shown by the off-shore soundings of the Coast Survey. Communi- 
cated by Prof. A. D. Bache. 

The first idea of forming a systematic collection of specimens 
of the bottom of the sea, in the Coast Survey, originated with the 
late Lieut. Geo. M. Bache, U. S. N. It was his intention to have 
classified and arranged them on a chart, so as to present to the eye a 
general view of the bottom of the sea, as on a geological map. His 
well-known zeal and ability are a guaranty that we would have had 
to expect very interesting results from his labors, had not an untimely 
death cut him off in the midst of his scientific researches in another 
branch of science. 

The collection begun by him has been increased every year since 
1844; the specimens of the material of the bottom of the sea, 
brought up by the Stellwagen lead, are put in small bottles, with a 
label indicating position, depth, etc. Prof. Bailet, of West Point, 
has examined, microscopically, a number of them submitted to him 

* Since the meeting of the Association an opportunity has occurred for comparing 
the planets Jupiter and Venus, under tolerably favorable circumstances. On the 6th 
of May, Jupiter was decidedly brighter than Venus ; on the 20th of May, a nearer 
approach to equality, but Jupiter still the brighter ; on the 6th of June, Venus ap- 
peared the brighter of the two, in about the same ratio as Jupiter on the 20th of 
May ; the 29th May may be taken as the epoch of equal brightness. Their bright- 
ness and ratio at these dates were as follow : 




May 20, 




" 29, 




June 6, 




Jupiter appears to have a reflective power four times as great as Venus, which 
seems to be inferior to Mars in this respect — a result which, at least, does not inval- 
idate the second of the above conclusions. 


by Prof. Bachb, and the highly interesting results have been lead 
before this Association at its meeting in Boston. 

Last year, at the recommendation of Prof. Agassiz, Prof. Baohb 
requested me to undertake the examination and classification of the 
whole collection, with especial reference to the conclusions which 
might be useful in the off-shore chart from Gay Head to Cape May, 
preparing for publication at the Coast Survey office, and under special 
instructions as to the practical results which were sought. A preli- 
minary report — ^the result of the examination of 700 specimens — ^was 
sent in in October last. Since that, the whole number of specimens 
examined amounts to about 1400. But in the following paper the 
results of only about 1200 have been used, rejecting those extending 
too much beyond the region comprehended between the 38th and 
40th degrees of latitude, and between the shore and the farthest 
point they reach, which is about the 100 fathom curve. 

The principal object of this investigation was to see what data 
us^ul to navigators could be obtained from the knowledge of the 
distribution of organisms on the bottom of the sea, and especially 
of the foraminiferse or polythalamia, on account of their abundance 
'and diversified forms. The results, so far, have proved more inter- 
esting to the naturalist than practically useful to the navigator, though 
not without their interest in this point of view. The distribution of 
the foraminiferse (the most abundant of the organisms found in deep 
sea soundings) has been found to depend, as far as this region is 
concerned, altogether upon the depth at which they are collected. It 
is still hoped, however, that some useful data may be obtained from 
a more extended investigation. 

To obtain those results, a series of tables was formed, in which the 
results of the examination of every specimen were entered, under 
the heads of position, depth, character of bottom, and fauna. By 
means of these tables, the diagram exhibited has been formed. A 
curve represents there the slope of the bottom of the sea from the 
shore to deep water. It follows a line running about south-east, 
beginning near Great Egg Harbor, (N. J.) The slope is, of course, 
highly exaggerated — the unit for the abscissa being the mile, and for 
the ordinates the fathom. The initials on top indicate some of the 
most characteristic genera of foraminiferss, in nearly the order of the 
first appearance, with increasing depth. The figures under each initial 
indicate the number of soundings in every region of ten fathoms 
range, in which specimens of the species indicated by the initial 



were found. They are only expressive of the proportion for the 
horizontal line in which they are placed, the number of soundings 
being proportionate to the area covered by a given depth of water. 

The species used are : Quinqueloeulina Occidentalism Bail., — Tri- 
loeulina 'Brongniartiana, d'Orb., — Biloculina stibspkerica, d'Orb., — 
Outtulinay ■ Rotulina Baileyi, mihi, — Rohulina d^Orhignyi^ 

Bail., — Marginulina Backei, — Dentalina cosiata^ mihi, — OMngerina 
rubra, d'Orb., — Orbulina universa d'Orb. 

The results of the examination are recorded in the following table, 
which shows the number of soundings of the different depths wMdi 
contained the several foraminiferse, and the whole number of speci- 
mens of the bottom at the several depths examined. 





































Cm B 
O n 

























































































































































If we now follow the lin^, b^iimisg at the shore, we will first find 
a region almost entirely bare of foraminifersB. This r^on extends 
to the depth of about fifteen fathoms; Now and then isolated Trikh 
eulinas and QuinqueloeuUncB are found. The bottom is mostly 
composed of a quartzose sand exposed to the motion of the water, 
and consequently not well adapted as a habitation for so delicate ani- 
mnliOi Beyond the depth, the foraminiferee become more abundant 
in species and individuals. At the depth of about sixty fathoms, we 
find one species — ^the Globigerina rubra becoming extremely prepon- 
derant in number, and its abundance seems to increase with depth. 
The greatest depth from which specimens have been examined 
in this investigation, is two hundred and sixty-seven fathoms, and 
there the Globigerina is still living in immense numbers — sometimes 
their number seems almost to equal the grains of sand. The bottom 
in this region is a fine dark grey sand. 

We may therefore distinguish three regions characterised by fora- 
miniferee; the first near the shore, without any, extends to about 
fifteen fathoms, the second goes to about sixty fathoms, is character- 
ized by a great number of species, of which the Rotulina BaiUyi seem 
to be most numerously represented. At about sixty -fathoms the 
Globigerina rubra is preponderating, and the Botulina Baileyi dis- 
appears, and this last region extends to a depth not yet known. 

I may remark, incidentally, that between the depths of nine and 
forty fathoms, almost every sounding brings up fragments of th6 
Echinarachnius parma^ usually dead, sometimes alive. 

The whole region examined is very uniform in its slope, and as has 
been shown above, is'' comprised between limits presenting no stri- 
king peculiarities. It can therefore be assumed that it is comprised 
in the district of one and the same marine fauna. Subsequent exami- 
nations of soundings from various parts of the coast, will no doubt 
show where the faunas change, perhaps their limits will be drawn 
with as much sharpness for the foraminiferse, as they are for other in- 
habitants of the sea, as for instance the shells at Cape Cod, which are 
different on the North and South side of it, as shown by Dr. Gotn.D; 
If this is the case, as there is good reason to hope, we will then be 
able to obtain some data, which will give much weight to the infor- 
mation which the Navigator gets from the examination of the bottom 
when sounding. 

Prof. Bailbt has left very few species undescribed. I will add 


here a list of those which seem to have esci^ped his attenticm, and 
describe some of them which seem to be new. 

Dentalina costata^ mihL Shell white, slender, r^ularly arcua- 
ted, marked with strong longitudinal ridges, extending to the aper- 
ture, which is on the pointed end of the last cell. Found in deep 

Polystomella Poeyana^ d'Orb. (Foraminiferse de Tile d^^^ba.) 
Found quite abundant in ten and twelve fathoms of water'in the 
neighborhood of Cape Henlopen. 

Rotulina Baileyi, mihi. Shell convex above, flat below, white, per- 
forated with small round holes. No umbilical disc. Aperture in 
form of an arch, with a raised lip. Common. 

Protalina agglutinans, mihi. Larger than preceding. Shell 
rough, with grains of sand incrusted; last whorl of the spire nearly 
covering the other ones ; aperture indistinct in the specimens exam- 
ined. Rare. Found in twenty, thirty, and forty fathoms. 

Clavulina rugosa, mihi, resembles very much Clavulina nochsaria 
d'Orb., but is thicker in proportion to length. Shell rough, yellow, 
cylindrical, last cells of increased diameter. Rare. Found in sixty 
fathoms. , 

Guttulina Icevis, mihi. Shell white, vitreous, very smooth, elongated, 
both ends nearly equally rounded, aperture terminal, surrounded by 
small radiating ridges. Pretty common. I have seen a figure of 
it, by Professor Bailey, but cannot learn that it has received a 
name yet. 

Textularia turbo, mihi. Shell in form of a cone, with nearly circu- 
lar base, rugose greyish, with an elongated aperture in the base of 
the cone. Found usually in company with Textularia Atlantieay 
Bail, in deep soundings. 

Biloculina subspherica, d'Orb. (Foraminiferse des Canaries.) 

Prof. Aoassiz observed that naturalists are not only much indebted 
to the Coast Survey for aid in investigations in natural history, but 
here they have a large fauna exhibited at once to them in this collec- 
tion, made by the Coast Survey — ^a collection whose importance is 
great in a scientific point of view, even were the practical value smaU. 
Besides, remarked he, Mr. Pourtales has just communicated an 
important paper on a striking analogy in the growth of plants, and 
of certain types in the animal kingdom, of which the following ab- 
stract was given: 


On the order of Si/tecessum of Parts in Foraminiferce^ by L. F. db 
PouRTALSB. Communicated hy Prof. Agassiz. 

Since the identity of the intimate structure of animals and plants 
has been ascertained by Lehman, various attempts have been made 
to trace an analogy between the growth of the various types in the 
two kingdoms. These attempts have failed, in as far as the analogy 
has been found very loose, and the strong contrast which exists 
between them has been more fully brought out, rather than an agree- 

Mr. PouRTALBS has, for the first time, pointed out a direct, well-sus- 
tained analogy, which is to be found in the order of succession of the 
cells in foraminiferae of the genera Textularia^ Candima^ Bihculina^ 
Trihculina and Quinqueloculina, This succession agrees fully with 
the succession of leaves in plants — so fully that it can be expressed 
by the same fractions with which botanists are now in the habit of 
expressing phyllotaxis in the vegetable kingdom. This is, there- 
fore, an important additional link in the investigation of the plan 
which regulates the normal position of parts in organised lieings — ^a 
link which may lead to include into one universal formula the rhyth- 
mic movements which preside over the development of all finite 
beings, as the phyllotactic formulae themselves are now known to 
express also the natural relations which exist in the movements of 
the bodies belonging to our solar system. 

After making the communication, illustrated by diagrams on the 
black-board, Pro& A. proceeded with his own paper on the classifi- 
cation of the Animal Kingdom. 

On the Principles of Classification^ hy L. Agassiz. 

It may be said that investigations upon the structure of animals 
have already yielded all the information coming from this source 
which can serve to improve our classification of the animal kingdom. 

After the great natural divisions of the animal kingdom have 
been circumscribed in accordance with their anatomical structure ; 
after the classes of the animal kingdom have been characterized by 
organic differences, it is hardly possible to expect that further inves- 
tigations upon the structure of animals will afford the means of 

M PROcsBBnrad of thb amsrioak association 

establishing correctly the natural relations of the families. For it is 
already seen that the amount of organic difference which exists be- 
tween the different families is either too insignificant to afford a test 
by which to settle their pre-eminence or inferiority, or so striking as 
to impress us with an exaggerated idea of their difierenoe. Many 
examples could be quoted to show, that, in this respect, from the 
same identical facts, naturalists have arrived At very opposite conclu- 
sions. And this diversity of opinion among investigators of equal 
ability leads me to think that comparative anatomy Yibs done its 
work in that direction, and that we must seek for another principle 
in order to settle in a natural way the respective positions of the 
minor divisions throughout the animal kingdom, and to set aside, 
once forever, the arbitrary decisions which we are constantly tempted 
to introduce into our classifications, whenever we attempt to arrange 
all the families in natural groups. Before so much had been done 
to improve the natural classification of the animal kingdom, it was 
hardly possible to notice how much was, on every occasion, settled 
by induction, and even arbitrary decision, beyond what the knowledge 
of facts would justify — ^for the brilliant results which the introduction 
of compwative anatomy, as the foundation of the classification of the 
animal kingdom, has brought to light, must naturally have blinded 
us to the imperfections and deficiencies which constantly accompany 
the most important improvements in the natural arrangement of 
every, class. Nevertheless, our confidence in the possibility of ascer- 
taining the natural relations of all animals has been increased by the 
growing agreement between the different systems ; and there is no 
philosophical observer who has not noticed this process of gradual 
approximation towards a greater uniformity in the view taken by 
different observers of the natural affinities of animals, however con- 
cealed this agreement has often been in consequence of changes of 
name or transposition of the order in which the objects were intro- 

The time has, however, gone by, when the mere translation of 
family names, or of more general or min6r divisions, into another 
language, could be presented as a new system, and the raising of a 
secondary division into the rank of a primary group, or the lowering 
of a primary division into a subordinate position, constituted an 
improvement in the knowledge of the natural relations of animals* 
Nothing short of a material addition to the information we possess 
regqseoting any group of animals, can now be considered as a real 
advance in ZoSlogy. 


It should be fiirther considered that our object is not merely or 
chiefly to ascertain the structural relations of animals, but to know 
all the various relations which have been established between them, 
and which they sustain towards the world in which they live. The 
knowledge of the natural embryonic development — of the order of 
succession in geological times — of the geographical distribution upon 
the surface of our globe— and of the habits arising from their natural 
relations to the elements in which they live — all these considerations 
are of as great importance in our zoological studies as the knowledge 
of the structure and functions of their organs, to which, of late, more 
exclusive attention has been paid. 

When comparing, in former years, the characters of fossil fishes, 
especially with a view of ascertaining their natural relations to the 
living types, I was struck with the fact that those of earlier ages 
presented many structural peculiarities, which occur only in the 
embryonic condition of the fishes of our days, and also that the older 
representatives of any family rank lower in comparison to their living 

This led me to infer that embryonic data might be applied with 
advantage to the correct appreciation of the natural relations of the 
various members of one and the sanie family, and perhaps also to 
the determination of the relative position of closely allied types. 

Under this impression, I began to compare young animals of 
various families with the different types of the same family in their 
full grown condition, when I was forcibly struck with the close resem- 
blance there is between the younger stages of development of such 
representatives as could otherwise be recognized as ranking high in 
their respective families, and the lower forms belonging to the same 
groups. This led naturally to the conclusion that the change which 
animals undergo during their growth might safely be taken as a stan- 
dard to determine the natural order of succession of all the repre- 
sentatives of any given type within the limits in which the higher 
ones pass successively through transient forms which the lower ones 
naturally present permanently in their full grown condition. 

This principle, once ascertained, led to the result, upon more exten* 
sive investigations, that a complete knowledge of the metamorphoses 
of animals, from the earliest period of their embryonic development 
to the last change they undergo before reaching their mature condi* 
tion, would afford, throughout the animal kingdom, a true meaeraire 
by which to as043rtain precisely, and without arbitrary decision on 

wZ rwocKMM9e« cr the 

<Mr own part, tiie natural reladre positk» of aD ^e minor groi^ 
of iht ammal kingdom. 

Beginning tlie reTiaon of the animal kingdom witk die type of 
Articnlala. it was not difficult, with these Tiews, to ascertain thai, 
the Worms, as a natural trpe^ruik lowest in the departmoit, as thej 
rqiresent permanently a stmctiiial adaptation whidi is closely analo- 
goos to the earliest conditioQ of derelopment of the insects ; tbat 
die Crustacea constitute a class intermediate b^ween the Worms 
and Insects, and not siiperi<»' to the Insects, as scmie naturalists 
would haTe them ; inasmuch as the highest combination of their 
rings presents as with an arrangement similar to that of the popa oi 
Inaects, in which the joints of the head and of thechest are combined 
in an inmiOTable shield, as in the popa c^ Insects, and in wUdi the 
JOTits of the abdomen alone remain moreable, is also the case among 
the faig^iest Crustacea. The position of the Insects as the highest 
class, can no loi^r be denied, when we consder that in them the 
body is at last divided into three distinct regic«s — head, <diest and 
abdomen — and that the locomotive app^idages, whidi, in the lower 
classes, are so nmneroos and miiform along the whole l^igth of the 
body, are reduced to the r^on of the diest, and assume there a 
particular developmaiit. 

Again, the transformation of the re^Hratory organs is an additioDid 
evidence in fiivor of sudi an arrangement, as will be admitted firom 
the fiict that Worms and Crustacea have duefly a brandiial respira- 
ticMi, while in Insects it becomes srial, in their perfect condition at 

Once upon this tra<^ it was easy to follow out the minor changes 
which these animals undergo during their final transfbrmaticHi, and to 
derive from the knowledge of these changes suffident information to 
asfflgn a d^nite position to all the subordinate groups in eadi of 
these classes. Taking the Insects, for instance, into special considera- 
tion, we ascertain readily that diewing Insects rank below the sucking 
tribes, as their larvse are chewing worms, provided with powerful 
jaws, even in the case of those which, like Lepidoptera, have the 
most perfectly developed sucking apparatus in their mature condition. 

Again, an investigation of the changes which the wings undergo in 
their formation, and the manner in which they are unfolded, when 
the perfect insect is hatched, led to the discovery that Coleopterous 
Insects, fiyr firom ranking high, must be c(msidered as lowest among 
Insects, inasmuch as the upper larval wings of Lepidoptera are a sort 


of elytra, which, after being cast in the last moulting, are succeeded 
by the more perfect membranous wing, which in its turn, undergoes 
such a development as to assign to those Lepidoptera, which have 
their wings folded backwards and enclosing the body, a position below 
those in which the wings spread sideways ; and the highest position 
to those which raise their wings upwards. So that these investiga- 
tions have settled even the relative position of the secondary minor 
groups in each of these orders, and though, as yet, imperfectly traced 
out, they have at least shown the principle upon which a natural 
classification of these animals might be carried into the most minute 
details, without ever leaving any point to our arbitrary decision. 
Similar results have already been arrived at in other classes ; as, for 
instance, among Medusae, where naked-eyed Discophori, with alternate 
generations, must be considered as the lowest type, recalling, in one 
of their conditions, the appearances of the inferior class of polypi ; 
when the covered-eyed Discophori, with their strobiloid generation, 
b^ins in its lowest state with a medusoid polyp. 

Similar facts are known among Echinoderms, in which, among Cri- 
noids, the highest free forms begin with germs provided with a stem, 
thus assigning, on embryological grounds, a lower position to aU 
those which are provided with a stem. 

In the same manner has it been possible to determine the position 
of Bryozoa among Mollusca below Ascidise, upon the ground that 
their embryonic development is similar. It has been possible, in the 
same way to assign to Pteropoda a position inferior to that of Gaste- 
ropada proper, and not intermediate between Gasteropoda and Ce- 
phalopoda, as anatomical investigations would seem to indicate. For 
it is now plain that the spreading appendages of the body of Ptero- 
poda are not analogous to the long tentacles which encircle the head 
in Cuttle-fishes, but correspond to the vibratory rudders of the 
embryo in marine Gasteropoda. 

Again, the position of Foraminiferfis, seems to me no longer doubt- 
ful. They are neither microscopic Cephalophoda, nor Polypi, as of 
late it has been generally thought best to consider them, but con- 
stitute a truly embryonic type in the great division of Gasteropoda, 
exemplifying, in this natural division, in a permanent condition, the 
embryonic state of development of common Grasteropoda, during 
which the bulk of the yolk passes through the process of repeated 

This principle — of embryological changes as a foimdation of the 



^^•^'^ ui dl clas&ificatiou ia the internal arrangement of all the minor 
M»"^i>^ ai the natural classes of the animal kingdom— applies, with 
ciual bucc4:h,i to the vertebrata. 

>> fc ueed ouly eotttrast the successive changes of tailless Batra- 
t loiiim during their metamorphoses, with the permanent forms of the 
t ttudate and braaohiate types in that order, to be satisfied that the 
I cUtive rank of all these genera can in no way be better determined, 
thitu by a direct comparison of the permanent forms of the whole 
group, with the successive changes in the embryonic condition of 
iUi higher types; and a comparison of the metamorphoses them- 
aclves, in the different geoera, will leave no doubt as to which* of 
tbcm the highest rank should be assigned. 

1 have already, on other occasions, alluded to the improvements 
which are likely to be introduced into our classification of birds, upon 
considerations derived from embryological data. I may be permitted 
here to add, that even the classification of mammalia will receive 
decided improvements upon the consideration of their embryological 
changes. A single instance, even now, will at least show that the 
true relative rank of their families can be determined in that way. 
We need only compare, among true Camivora, the Plantigrades, the 
^i^^itigrades, and the web-footed Seals, with the transformation of the 
lixabs in the embryo of Gats and Dogs, to be satisfied that the order 
in which these animals are arranged by Cuvisb, does not agree with 
their natural metamorphoses, and that the Plantigrades should rank 
below the Digitigrades, nearer to the Seals, and the Digitigrades 
highest ; and the affinity of the Ice-Bear to the Seals will further 
sustain this statement. 

These remarks will, at tiie same time, show that no investigations 
ava at present more needed to improve our natural methods in clas-» 
si&oation, than a thorough study of young animals ; and that an ex- 
tensive illustration of the young of all the principal representations 
of the great natural groups in the Animal Kingdom, would, for the 
present, contribute more to the advance of Zoology, than any amount 
of description of new species. 

Bat these investigations of young animals should be made with a 
full knowledge of their various relations, and with the view of ascer- 
tainmg chiefly those Zoological peculiarities, which may illustrate 
more fully the value of all these relations. 

There is another field of investigation hardly yet entered upon, 
which is likely tP contribute lai^ely to the improvement of our 


cj^s^ificatioQ, I refer to the study of fossils, oompftred in their 
structiural peoidiAiities, with the embryos of their Hying representa- 
tives^ It has already been shown that many fossils of the earliest 
geological periods, have a close resemblance to embryonic forms of 
the present day ; and that, in their respective &miliesy these fossils 
rank among the lower types. 

This, result, in itself should be a sufficient inducement to trace this 
dQttble relation, and to ascertain from as many fossils as possible, 
iltrhenever they are sufficiently well preserved to allow of such com- 
parisons, what is the extent of their analogy to embryonic forms, of 
the present period, and also what is the amount of affinity they have 
to the lower types of their respective classes. 

I would mention in this connection, the necessity of a revised com- 
parison of the TrUobites, with the earliest stages of development of 
Qruatajoea, when it will be found, as I have already seen it, that almost 
all the genera of Trilobites se^n. to be the prophetic images, in a 
gigantic form^ of the different types the Gnistacea present in their 
embryonic state. The different degrees of development of these 
different types, when contrasted with each. other, will go far to assign 
to each genus, its appropriate rank. I venture even to say, that the 
time will come when the relative age of fossils, within certain limits, 
wlQ be as satisfactory a guide in assigning them their normal position 
in a natural system, as the facts derived from the study of their 
structure, so intimate are the connections existing between all parts 
of the wonderful plan displayed in creation. 

Little or no advantage has as yet been derived from the study of 
the relations of animals with the elements in which they live, in 
ascertaining their natural relations among themselves ; but even in 
this respect we may derive valuable hints from a careful study of the 
geographical distribution of all animals ; and the mere nature of the 
elements in which they live naturally. 

On reviewing lately the whole Animal Kingdom, with a view to 
ascertain what is the value of the natural connection between the 
animals and the media in which they live, with reference to organic 
gradation, I have satisfied myself that aquatic types are decidedly 
inferior to the terrestrial ; the marine inferior to the lacustrine and 
fluviatile ones ; that those which live upon the main land and burrow 
under ground are inferior to those which live above ground ; that 
nocturnal types are inferior to diurnal types ; and that under other- 
wise similar circumstances, representatives of one and the same 

96 PBOOKBIIDiae of the ^MllTOAlff AMOdAflOV 

group which differ in these respects, have a higher and lower rank, in 
accordance with their eztemal drcomstances ; so much so, that where 
we have no other guide, an influoice respecting their natural position 
may be fiiirly derived firom their conditions of life. 

It will thus be obvious that as soon as we introduce simultaneously 
into our classification conriderations derived firom all these different 
sources ; as soon as we allow the embryonic development, geological 
succession, geographical distribution, and relaticm to the natural 
elements, to assist us in our efforts to assgn to all animals a natural 
position in one great system, we shall be able to sketch a &r more 
complete picture of the great diversity which exists in nature, than 
if we aUow ourselves to be guided chiefly by anatomical data ; and 
my object at present is mainly to urge the necessity of stud^ies in 
these different directions, with a view of improving our classification, 
and to innst upon the necessity of keeping, at the same time, in 
view, all these &cts, whenever we attempt to form a correct idea of 
the manifested relations which exist throughout the creation, firom the 
earliest period of the existence of animals up to the present day, 
between all their different types. 

The Association then adjourned to meet to-morrow, at 10, A. M. 

LEWIS B. GIBBES, Secretary. 

voB THs ADVAJKcnamt OF flctmoB. 97 

F<mrik Day^ Friday^ March 15, 1850. 

Pbof. Baohx took the Qudr at half-past 10 ; the minutes of last 
meeting were read and confirmed. 

Hie Report of the Standing Committee was read, and the following 
resolution offered : 

Besolvedy That the following named members of the Association 
be requested to report at the next meeting, at New-Haven, the 
Physical Constants for the following placesi : 

1. Philadelphia — ^Prof. Fbazeb. 

2. Cambridge and Boston — ^Prof. Lovxbino, Prof. Pibbob. 

3. Charleston — ^Prof. L. R. Gibbbs. 

4. New-Haven — ^Prof. Olmstbd, Mr. E. C. Hbbbiok. 

5. Cincinnati — Prof. Mitohbll. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The following gentlemen, nominated by the Committee, were 
elected members of the Association : / 

Dr. A. B. WiLLiMAN, Dr. Hbnby Ravbnbl, CSiarleston, S. C; John 
MuzzBY, Esq., Portland, Me.; Rev. Gbobob White, Marietta, Ga.; 
Prof. Sherman, Howard College, Ala.; Dr. Pendleton, Sparta, Ga.; 
Dr. Andrews, Charlotte, N. C; George A. Trenholm, Esq., Hbnrt 
D. Lbsesne, Esq., Charleston, S. C. . 

A recess at 1 o'clock was recommended, and the Programme for 
the day announced. 

Dr. Baohman was called to the Chair, and the reading of papers 
commenced. Dr. B's. own paper coming up first, he requested Prof. 
Shbpard to take the Chair, while he read a paper 

On the American Species of the Genua Putorius, by John Baohman, 
D.D., Professor of Natwral History^ College of Charleston, 

[Not received.] 

Dr. Baghman resumed the CSiair, and Prof Tuombv read a paper, 
On the alleged subsidence of the Coast of tSouth-Carolina^ which has 
not been received* 


* "» • • 

'-/ - .'- -V- 

w* PBooaaMMQS or ibs jlmkkioax association 

The next paper pres^ted was the following : 

An examination of the Phyneal History of the Jews, in its hearings 
on the Question of the Unity of the Maces; by Josiah C. Nott, 
M.D., Mobile, Ala., of which thefoUowing is an abstract* 

Having assumed as a fact generally conceded (all things being 
equal) that those races of men or animals, which are least mixed 
with others, preserve best their ordinal types, the following proposi- 
tions were laid down for examination: 

1st. That from the time of the Patriarch Abraham to the present, 
Ae Jewish race has preserved its blood more pure than any of anti- 
quity, whose history is known to us; and that consequently its 
original type ought to be the same, as its type of the present day. 

2d, That we have abundant evidence to prove that the original 
type brought by Abraham from Mesopotamia, 4000 years ago, has 
been substantially handed down to his descendants of the present diay. 

3d. That although the Jewish race has been subjected during this 
immense lapse of time, in the four quarters of the globe, to every 
possible variety of moral and physical influence, yet in no instance 
ha» it lost its own type, or approdmated that of other races. 

4th. And lastly, this race having thus for 4000 years preserved its 
type unchanged, under all known influences whidi could change ai 
race, it follows as a corollary that no physical causes exist which can 
traosibrm one ^^ace into another, as the white man into the n^ro, etc. 

Dr. Nott admitted that much talent, learning, and iadustry had, 
at various times been brought to bear on the subject before us, but 
insisted on the necessity of another and full investigation, as more 
perf<Mt data for its clear understanding have been aecumulating in 
the last 20^ than' have existed at any previous time dturing 2000 
years. The inscription on the monuments of Egypt espedally, 
which have only recently been deciphered, have opened an entirely 
new field. W^ nowhaveposit^e'&ots to prove, from this source, 
the di9^b:icfciieB3>in'type of Aaifttio and African races, some 2 to 3000 
years before Christ, and a well established chronology for remote 
ages, utterly unknown, previous to the discoveries of Champoluon 
and his followers. He then glanced at the evidences afforded by the 
Bodt of 0«iiesui, of the trntiquity and' peimaiioe ot die peculiar fea- 
iMlrea presented by the Jews of our day. 

•The reader kiefisrred to the '* Biblical and Phyrical Hifltory of Man," by the 
•ame author, for fdrther detaila. 

,• *• ••• ,•• • • 


Abraham, the great Patriarch of this race, is a direct descendant 
from Shem, the son of Noah, and only ten generations below him. 
According to the Hebrew text, the epoch of Abraham was but 292 
years after the flood,* and about 2000 years B. C. He doubtless 
preserved the type of his ancestors, through these comparatively few 
generations, and facts go very strongly to show, that the linaments 
of Father Abraham have been &ithfully transmitted to our day, 
through some 125 generations. We have never seen the fact dispu- 
ted that the modem Jews, as we see them in Europe and America, 
are &ithful representatives of their early progenitors, and yet such 
strange grounds have been taken by certain writers, as to the influ- 
exiiXB of physical causes on mankind, as to render it necessary that 
it should be established on a firm basis. 

The native land of Abraham was ^' Ur of the Chaldees'' (Mesopo- 
tamia) where he married Sarah, one of his own race — ^with her he 
moved to the land of Canaan, which was promised to him and his 
posterity by the Lord. When his son Isaac and grandson Jacob 
arrived at marriageable ages, wives were brought for them from the 
land of their forefathers, and from their kindred; and we have thus 
the most clear Kblical evidence that up to the time of the entrance 
c^ Jacob and his twelve sens into Egypt, the blood of the Israelites, 
as well as their type was faithfully preserved. By the invitation of 
Joseph, they migrated to Egypt, about seventy in number, and the 
kmd of Goshen was assigned them as a residence. It was adapted 
to thehr pastorid habits, and waa detadied from the Egyptian popu- 
lation. They lived in this country, we are told, through but four 
gfdnerations, and the duration of time has been variously estimated at 
from 215 to 430 years, but they lived apart from other people, and 
intermarried only amongst themselves. 

> 1%e ncKXt steps in the history of this people were the memorable 
Szode under Moses^ the Conquest of Oaaaan, by Jo^ua, and their 
setMement in tlutt <x>untry, and from tibis period down to the de- 
staruction of ishe' Temple by Tttus, A. D., Palestine was more or less 
oMttiqcded ibythein-?^ period of about 1500 years. It is true that 
darings thia rtime l^ey 'weroiDcessatitlyhairassed by wars, civil and 
foreign — ^were subjected to captivitiea and calamities of Tarious kinds ; 
waA theu*. Uood was somsewfaat adulterated with that of the Syro- 
4ttaliian:stodkAaKMmd lhem,who did^not difir^ppert from tlramin 

^ Hhe BefKliigmt'VMiipa ylMW it 1079 yeus uku the Fk>od. 


type, in a few instances, as Solomon, Joseph, and others, they 
married Elgyptians. It is clear, therefore, from the history of 
the Jewish people from, first to last, but more especially since the 
Babylonish Captivity ; as well as from their rigid adher^ice to this 
custom all over the world, at the present time that the Israelites 
have preserved, in a remarkable degree, their purity of blood, and as 
a consequence, their linaments. There have been, as we have stated, 
exceptions to the broad rule, which will account for the deviationa of 
tyipe^ not unfrequently seen amongst those professing the Jewish 
fidth; and while on the one hand, we can thus account for those 
deviations from the national type, we on the other, never doubt as 
to the origin of a Jewish face wherever we meet it. A well-marked 
Jewish face is never seen out of the Abrahamic race ; and this fact 
alone should almost sufRce to prove that the features of the Patri- 
arch, and through him that of the ten generations before him have 
been faithfully perpetuated. 

But what other evidence have we of this transmission of type from 
early times 1 Even the dead, who have been sleeping in their tombs 
for 3 or 4000 years, have risen up to testify to the tact ! In the 
magnificent collection of Dr. Morton, in Philadelphia, may be 
seen the mummied head of an Israelite taken from an ancient Mem- 
phitic tomb, in which the national type is so perfect that it would 
be pronounced in our day, a characteristic specimen of the race. 
This head is the more striking, as it is one of more than one hundred 
from the same source, sent out from Egypt by Mr. GLmnoN, &c., 
stands in strong contrast with others of Egyptian, Pelasgian, Negro 
type, &c. Other specimens of Jewish type are found in the Cata- 

On the ancient monuments, too, of Egypt, we see sculptures, and 
paintings of different Asiatic and African races, as distinctly marked 
as at the present day, dating back, according to Bunsen, Lepsius, 
&c., from 1500 to 3000 years Before Christ, and amongst others, it is 
conceded generally, that there are portraits of Israelites, ante-dating 
the epoch of Moses. (See Bosellini, Sengstenberg, Osburn, JSRttOy 
etc.) The Rev. Dr. Hawks, of New-York, in his late interesting 
work on Egypt, endorses fully this opinion. 

It is remarkable too, how these testimonials of antiquity are cor- 
roborated by the statements of modem travellers in all parts of the 
world. The identical features presented by the Jews all over Europe 
and America, are still found in Mesopotamia, theur original abode, 

•12* ••• "•• • 

• . » 


between the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, also, through 
northern Persia, A%hanistan, &c., a direction in which we are in- 
formed by history sacred and profane, the ten tribes were dispersed 
after the Assyrian captivity, in the 8th Century, B. C. 

The final dispersion of the remaining tribe took place in the year 
70, A. D., and since that time, this people have been scattered over 
the habitable globe — ^have adopted the languages, manners, customs, 
and modes of life of the nations among whom they have settled, in all 
latitudes, longitudes, and climates; and yet no one ever looks to 
climate, or any other cause but the blood of Abraham, to account for 
the Jewish features. It is true that all races of men are more or 
less influenced by the extremes of climate — the Jews, like other &ir 
races, become more fair in cold, or more dark in hot latitudes, than 
in their native land ; yet there is a limit to this change, and that 
limit is far short of other types — the complexion may be bleached 
or tanned in exposed part of the body, but the pure blooded Jew has 
never changed his lineaments. 

We are fully aware that Prichard,* (who is inconsistent with him- 
self on this and numerous other points,) contends that Jews have^ in 
various parts of the world, been transformed into other types, and 
several examples have been brought forward by himself and other 
advocates of Unity of the Races. We have examined them all with 
care, and have no hesitation in saying that they have not the slightest 
foundation in truth — ^nor is there a single instance of transformation 
of any race in Prichard's book, which cannot be refuted from his 
own writings. 

The most prominent example, and one hawked about by every 
periodical scribler is that of the Black Jews of India, respecting which 
Mr. Priohard has dodged the difHculties opposed to him in a most 
extraordinary manner, for one professing to write the " Physical His- 
tory of Mankind." Though the testimony is certainly strong, not to 
say conclusive^ to prove that the so called BUu^k Jews are in reality 
not Jews^ he suppresses the &cts entirely, and passes it over without 
assigning a reason for his assertion, and with the simple statement 
that there is "no evidence" to show that they are not Jews. 

Dr. Nott here introduced at some4ength quotations from Bey. 
Claudius Buohakak, Woolff, and others, conversant with the faotch— 

* We are prepared to show that no book in the language, oontains more false 
beta and forced conclosions, than Prichaiid*s celebrated work on Mankind. 


tbe most reliable evidence (all of vfaich was well known to Prichard) 
to disprove his assertion. A reference: to the Asiatic researdies of 
BucHAKAN will satisfy the reader — ^he viedted Malabar under the pitK 
tection of the British authorities, and spent some time amon^t the 
White and Black Jews^ in 1806-7-8, and the following is a short 
extract from this work. 

" The " Jerusalem or White Jew%^'' live in Jews-town, about a mile 
from Cochin, and the ^^ Ancient or Blctck Jews,^ with small except 
tions, inijabit towns in the interior. 

" On my inquiry into the antiquity of the White Jews^ they first 
delivered to me a narrative in the Hebrew language, of their arrival 
in India, which has been handed down to them from their Others, and 
then exhibited a brass plate, containing their charter and freedom of 
residence given by the King of Malabar, &c." 

The narrative states that they migrated after the destruction of 
the second temple, to India. The King of Malabar granted them 
lands in A. D., 490, and this grant, according to custom, was engraved 
on a brass plate, which they still liad in possession. He further 
states that the native annals of Malabar, confirm these, and many 
other details, which will be found in the work alluded to. The Ma<- 
homedan histories of later ages also support these &cts. 

Of the Black Jews he says : " Their Hindoo complexion and their 
very imperfect resemblance to the Mtropean Jews, indicate that they 
have been detached from the parent-stock in Judea, many ages before 
the Jews in the West, and that tiiere have be^i intermarriages witli 
families 9iot Israelitish. * * * * The White Jews look upon 
tihe Black Jews as an inferior race, and as not of pure caste, which 
plainly demonstrates that they do not spring from a common stock in 

It will be thus seen that the testimony of Dr. Buchanan, than whom 
ih^e can be no more competent or reliable authority, leaves no 
reasonable ground to doubt that the White Jews had been living at 
least 1500 years in Malabar, and were still White Jews, without any 
^[>proximation to the type of the Hindoos, and that the Black Jews 
are an ^^ inferior race'"* — ^''not of pure caste," or, in other worda^ 
adulterated with dark Hlqdoos. This testimony is confirmed by 
WooLFF, in his Missionary Researches, who also travelled in India; 
and we know of no opposing evidence of weight. The Black Jews 
are probably a portion of the ten tribes who wandered ofi^ and, like 
the others, as before stated, have mingled with other races. 


How, let us ask,. could. Mr. Priohabd pass over suidi evid/enen, 
^md without one word to rebut it, and say there, is "no evidenoe'^ 
that the Black Jews are not pure 1 How, too, can. he acknowledge, 
as he, and as every body must, that the White Jews haye been living 
in the same climate for at least 1500 years without change, and yett 
contend that the so-called Black Jews, though repudiated by their 
white neighbors, are really pure Jews. If 1500 years, which would 
give about fifty generations, cannot produce amongst the White Jews 
any approximation in type to their Hindoo neighbors, can any one 
contend that 2500 years would so completely transform them I 

The Jews of Abyssinia have also been instanced as. an example of 
-change ; but Dr. Nott here introduced some striking &cts to the 
contrary, from an interesting pamphlet by the distinguished orientalist, 
Chas. T. Bskb, Esq., London, respecting this people, showing clearly 
that they are not of pure blood. Bbuob, though inclined to the 
•opinion that they are pure Jews, expresses doubts ; while Priohard 
himself supports the opinion of Bbke. 

The history of the ten tribes affords strong evidence of the: influence 
of mixtures with other races. In the 8th century, (B. C.) they were 
conquered by Tiglathpileser and Shalmaneser, and carried captive 
into Assyria, and their places supplied by foreign colonists from that 
country. These, with the remains of the ten tribes, formed the 
Samaritans of after times, while the great mass of these tribes were 
scattered ao^oss Asia and almost lost by amalgamation. This seems 
to be the plain teaching of sacred and profane history, and yet the 
uninformed are discovering them, not only in the remote comers of 
the old but in the New World. The aborigines of America have 
been taken for the lost tribes^ and California for the land of Ophir-^ 
both ideas equally ridiculous. We cannot imagine, if all other testi- 
mony were wanting, how these tribes should have lost all traces 
of their religion, and even their family names, to say nothing of their 

The following extract from the Encychpcedia Britannica, will be 
found interesting in connection with this subject : 

"The A%hans, as before remarked, bear strong marks of Jewish 
type, and are doubtless descended from the ten tribes." "The Af- 
ghans have no resemblance to the Tartars who surround them., in 
person, habits or language. Sir William Jones is inclined to believe 
that their descent may be traced to the Israelites, and adds that the 
best informed Persian historians have adopted the same o{»nion« The 


Qfttural classification in the intemal arrangement of all the minor 
groups in the natural classes of the animal kingdom — ^applies, with 
equal success to the vertebrata. 

We need only contrast the successive changes of tailless Batra- 
chians during their metamorphoses, with the permanent forms of the 
caudate and branchiate types in that order, to be satisfied that the 
relative rank of all these genera can in no way be better determined, 
than by a direct comparison of the permanent forms of the whole 
group, with the successive changes in the embryonic condition of 
iiis higher types ; and a comparison of the metamorphoses them- 
^^ves, in the difierent geiiera, will leave no doubt as to which* of 
them the highest rank should be assigned. 

I have already, on other occasions, alluded to the improvements 
which are likely to be introduced into our classification of birds, upon 
QonsideratioQs derived from embryological data. I may be permitted 
here to add, that even the classification of mammalia will receive 
decided improvements upon the consideration of their embryological 
dianges. A single instance, even now, will at least show that the 
true relative rank of their families can be determined in that way. 
We need only compare, among true Camivora, the Plantigrades, the 
Digitigrades, and the web-footed Seals, with the transformation of the 
limbs in the embryo of Gats and Dogs, to be satisfied that the order 
in which these animals are arranged by Cuvieb, does not agree with 
their natural metamorphoses, and that the Plantigrades should rank 
below the Digitigrades, nearer to the Seals, and the Digitigrades 
highest ; and the affinity of the Ice-Bear to the Seals will further 
sustain this statement. 

These remarks will, at t^e same time, show that no investigations 
ave at present more needed to improve our natural methods in das-* 
sification, than a thorough study of young animals ; and that an ex- 
tensive illustration of the young of all the principal representations 
of the great natural groups in the Animal Kingdom, would, for the 
present, contribute more to the advance of Zoology, than any amount 
of description of new species. 

Bttt these investigations of young animals should be made with a 
fall knowledge of their various relations, and with the view of ascer- 
taining chiefly those Zoological peculiarities, which may illustrate 
more fully the value of all these relations. 

There is another field of investigation hardly yet entered upon, 
which is likely 1^ contribute largely to the improvement of our 


^^SQification. I refer to the study of fossdls, compared in tikeir 
structiural peculiarities, with the embryos of their living represeata^ 
tiyes» It has already been shown that many fossils of the earliest 
geological periods, have a close resemblance to embryonic forms of 
the present day ; and that, in their respective fiumlies, these fossils 
rank among the lower types. 

This result, in itself should be a sufficient inducement to trace this 
double relation, and to ascertain from as ntiany fossils as possible, 
vvhenever they are sufficiently well. preserved to allow of such com- 
parisonsy what is the extent of their analogy to embryonic forms, of 
the present period, and also what is the amount of affinity they have 
to the lower types of their respective classes. 

I: would mention in this connection, the necessity of a revised com- 
parison of the Tnlobites, with the earliest stages of development of 
Crustacea, when it will be found, as I have already seen it, that almost 
all the genera of Ttilobites seem to be the prophetic images, in a 
gigantic form, of the different types the Crustacea present in their 
embryonic state. The different degrees of development of these 
different types, when contrasted with each other, wUl go far to assign 
to each genus, its appropriate rank. I venture even to say, that the 
time will come when the relative age of fossils, within certain limits, 
will be as satisfactory a guide in assigning them their normal position 
in a natural system, as the facts derived from the study of their 
structure, so intimate are the connections existing between all parts 
of the wonderful plan displayed in creation. 

Little or no advantage has as yet been derived from the study of 
the relations of animals with the elements in which they live, in 
ascertaining their natural relations among themselves ; but even in 
this respect we may derive valuable hints from a careful study of the 
geographical distribution of all animals ; and the mere nature of the 
elements in which they live naturally. 

On reviewmg lately the whole Animal Kingdom, with a view to 
ascertain what is the value of the natural connection between the 
animals and the media in which they live, with reference to organic 
gradation, I have satisfied myself that aquatic types are decidedly 
inferior to the terrestrial ; the marine inferior to the lacustrine and 
fluviatile ones ; that those which live upon the main land and burrow 
under groimd are inferior to those which live above ground ; that 
nocturnal types are inferior to diurnal types ; and that under other- 
wise similar circumstances, representatives of one and the same 


group which differ in these respects, have a higher and lower rank, in 
accordance with their external circumstances ; so much so, that where 
we have no other guide, an influence respecting their natural portion 
may be &irly derived from their conditions of life. 

It will thus be obvious that as soon as we introduce simultaneously 
into our classification considerations derived firom all these different 
sources ; as soon as we allow the embryonic development, geological 
succession, geographical distribution, and relation to the natural 
elements, to assist us in our efforts to assign to all animals a natural 
position in one great system, we shall be able to sketch a far more 
complete picture of the great diversity which exists in nature, than 
if we allow ourselves to be guided chiefly by anatomical data ; and 
my object at present is mainly to urge the necessity of studies in 
these different directions, with a view of improving our classification, 
and to insist upon the necessity of keeping, at the same time, in 
view, all these facts, whenever we attempt to form a correct idea of 
the manifested relations which exist throughout the creation, firoia tiie 
earliest period of the existence of animals up to the present day, 
between all their different types. 

The Association then adjourned to meet to-morrow, at 10, A. M. 

LEWIS R. GIBBES, Secretary, 


Fourth Day^ Friday^ March 15, 1850. 

Pbof. Bachs took the Chair at half^past 10 ; the mmutes of last 
meeting were read and confirmed. 

The Report of the Standing Committee was read, and the following 
resolution offered : 

Resolved^ That the following named members of the Association 
be requested to report at the next meeting, at New-Haven, the 
Physical Constants for the following placesi : 

L Philadelphia — ^Prof. Fbazbb. 

2. Cambridge and Boston — Prof. Lovebino, Prof. Pibbob. 

3. Charleston — ^Prof. L. R. Gibbbs. 

4. New-Haven — ^Prof. Olmstbd, Mr. E. C. Hbbbiok. 

5. dncinnati — Prof. Mitchell. 

The resolution was unanimously adopted. 

The following gentlemen, nominated by the Committee, were 
elected members of the Association : ¥ 

Dr. A. B. WiLLiMAN, Dr. Hbnby Ravenbl, Charleston, S. C; John 
MuzzEY, Esq., Portland, Me.; Rev. George White, Marietta, Ga.; 
Prof. Sherman, Howard College, Ala.; Dr. Pendleton, Sparta, Ga.; 
Dr. Andrews, Charlotte, N. C; Geoboe A. Trenholm, Esq., Henry 
D. Lesesne, Esq., Charleston, S. C. 

A recess at 1 o'clock was recommended, and the Programme for 
the day announced. 

Dr. Bachman was called to the Chair, and the reading of papers 
commenced. Dr. B's. own paper coming up first, he requested Prof. 
Shepabd to take the Chair, while he read a paper 

On the American Species of the Genus Putorius, by John Bachman, 
D.D., Professor of Natural History^ College of Charleston, 

[Not received.] 

Dr. Baohman resumed the Qiair, and Prof. Tuomby read a paper, 
On the alleged subsidence of the Coast of South-Carolina^ which has 
not been received.. 


• • « 

• • •••••• •* • 

• • « • •• • 

• • , ;•• r** 

• • •• • • • , 


Abraham, the great Patriarch of this race, is a direct descendant 
irom Shem, the son of Noah, and only ten generations below him. 
According to the Hebrew text, the epoch of Abraham was but 292 
years after the flood,* and about 2000 years B. C. He doubtless 
preserved the type of his ancestors, through these comparatively few 
generations, and facts go very strongly to show, that the linaments 
of Father Abraham have been &ithfully transmitted to our day, 
through some 125 generations. We have never seen the fitct dispu- 
ted that the modem Jews, as we see them in Europe and America, 
are £iith^l representatives of their early progenitors, and yet such 
strange grounds have been taken by certain writers, as to the influ- 
ences of physical causes on mankind, as to render it necessary that 
it should be established on a firm basis. 

The native land of Abraham was "Ur of the Chaldees" (Mesopo- 
tamia) where he married Sarah, one of his own race — ^with her he 
moved to the land of Canaan, which was promised to him and his 
posterity by the Lord. When his son Isaac and grandson Jacob 
arrived at marriageable ages, wives were brought for them from the 
land of their forefathers, and from their kindred; and we have thus 
the most clear Biblical evidence that up to the time of the entrance 
(^ Jacob and his twelve sens into £^ypt,the blood of the Israelites, 
as well as their type was faithfully preserved. By the invitation of 
Jos^b, they migrated to Egypt, about seventy in number, and the 
land of Goshen was assigned them as a residence. It was adapted 
to then- pastoral habits, and was deta43hed from the Egyptian popu- 
lation. They lived in this country, we are told, through but four 
generations, and the-doration of time has been variously estimated at 
from 215 to 430 years, but they lived apart from other people, and 
intermarried only amongst themselves. 

Thenaxt steps in the hstory of tins people were the memorable 
Exode under Moses, the Conquest of CSaaaan, by Joshua, and their 
MtilemBnt in tibot country, and from this period down to the de- 
sferuetion of ishe Temple by Titos, A. D., Palestine was more or less 
oodopied ;by them-t^ period of about 1500 years. It is true that 
teing^this time l^ey were incessantly faairassed by wars, dvO and 
foreign — ^were subjected to oaptivitiie& and: calamities of vmrioufl kinds ; 
and their, iblood was somewhAt adulterated with that of the Syro- 
A)nblan'8tock8^aixnmd4bem,who did not dlfier greatly from tiumin 

^Ihd a^ivlMcmtiVCiiion i^lMeait laTSyeaiB «ft«r the Fk>od. 


tyj^e, in a few instances, as Solomon, Joseph, and others, they 
married Egyptians. It is clear, therefore, from the history of 
the Jewish people from, first to last, but more especially since the 
Babylonish Captivity ; as well as from their rigid adherence to this 
custom all over the world, at the present time that the Israelites 
have preserved, in a remarkable degree, their purity of blood, and as 
a consequence, their linaments. There have been, as we have stated, 
exceptions to the broad rule, which will cuccountfcyr ike deviations of 
type, not unfrequently seen amongst those professing the Jewish 
faith; and while on the one hand, we can thus account for those 
deviations from the national t3rpe, we on the other, never doubt as 
to the origin of a Jewish face wherever we meet it. A well-marked 
Jewish face is never seen out of the Abrahamic race ; and this &ct 
alone should almost suffice to prove that the features of the Patri- 
arch, and through him that of the ten generations before him have 
been faithfully perpetuated. 

But what other evidence have we of this transmission of type from 
early times 1 Even the dead, who have been sleeping in their tombs 
for 3 or 4000 years, have risen up to testify to the tact ! In the 
magnificent collection of Dr. Morton, in Philadelphia, may be 
seen the mummied head of an Israelite taken from an ancient Mem- 
phitic tomb, in which the national type is so perfect that it would 
be pronounced in our day, a characteristic specimen of the race. 
This head is the more striking, as it is one of more than one hundred 
from the same source, sent out from Egypt by Mr. Gliddon, dec, 
stands in strong contrast with others of Egyptian, Pelasgian, Negro 
type, &c. Other specimens of Jewish type are found in the Cata- 

On the ancient monuments, too, of Egypt, we see sculptures, and 
paintings of different Asiatic and African races, as distinctly marked 
as at the present day, dating back, according to Bunsen, Lepsius, 
&c., from 1500 to 3000 years Before Christ, and amongst others, it is 
conceded generally, that there are portraits of Israelites, ante-dating 
the epoch of Moses. (See Bosellini, Hengstenberg, Osbum, Kitto, 
etc.) The Rev. Dr. Hawks, of New-York, in his late interesting 
work on Egypt, endorses fully this opinion. 

It is remarkable too, how these testimonials of antiquity are cor- 
roborated by the statements of modem travellers in all parts of the 
world. The identical features presented by the Jews all over Europe 
and America, are still found in Mesopotamia, their original abode, 

,• •• •••«•• • • 



between the waters of the Tigris and Euphrates, also, through 
northern Persia, A%hanistan, &G., a direction in which we are in- 
formed by history sacred and profane, the ten tribes were dispersed 
after the Assyrian captivity, in the 8th Century, B. C. 

The final dispersion of the remaining tribe took place in the year 
70, A. D., and since that time, this people have been scattered over 
the habitable globe — ^have adopted the languages, manners, customs, 
and modes of life of the nations among whom they have settled, in all 
latitudes, longitudes, and climates ; and yet no one ever looks to 
climate, or any other cause but the blood of Abraham, to account for 
the Jewish features. It is true that all races of men are more or 
less influenced by the extremes of climate — the Jews, like other £ur 
races, become more fair in cold, or more dark in hot latitudes, than 
in their native land ; yet there is a limit to this change, and that 
limit is far short of other types — the complexion may be bleached 
or tanned in exposed part of the body, but the pure blooded Jew has 
never changed his lineaments. 

We are fully aware that Prichard,* (who is inconsistent with him- 
self on this and numerous other points,) contends that Jews have^ in 
various parts of the world, been transformed into other types, and 
several examples have been brought forward by himself and other 
advocates of Unity of the Races. We have examined them all with 
care, and have no hesitation in saying that they have not the slightest 
foundation in truth — ^nor is there a single instance of transformation 
of any race in Prichard's book, which cannot be rented from his 
own writings. 

The most prominent example, and one hawked about by every 
periodical scribler is that of the Ektck Jews of India, respecting which 
Mr. Prichard has dodged the difficulties opposed to him in a most 
extraordinary manner, for one professing to write the '^ Physical His- 
tory of Mankind." Though the testimony is certainly strong, not to 
say conclusive^ to prove that the so called BUuik Jews are in reality 
not Jews^ he suppresses the &cts entirely, and passes it over without 
assigning a reason for his assertion, and with the simple statement 
that there is ''no evidence'' to show that they are not Jews, 

Dr. Nott here introduced at some^ength quotations from Bev. 
Claudius Buchanan, Woolff, and others, conversant with the faots — 

* We are prepared to show that no book in the language, eontains more false 
facts and forced concluBiong, than Prichard's celebrated work on Mankind. 

I I 



the most reliable evidence (ail of which was well known to Pricha&d) 
to disprove his assertion. A reference to the Asiatic researches of 
Buchanan will satisfy the reader — he visited Malabar under the pro> 
tection of the British authorities, and spent some time amongst the 
White and Black Jews, in 1806-7-8, and the following is a short 
extract from this work. 

" The " Jerusalem or White Jew%^'* live in Jews-taunt, about a mile 
from Cochin, and the ^'Ancient or Black Jews,"" with sm&H excep- 
tions, inljabit towns in the interior. 

" On my inquiry into the antiquity of the White Jews, they first 
delivered to me a narrative in the Hebrew language, of their arrival 
in India, which has been handed down to them from their &thers, and 
then exhibited a brass plate, containing their charter and freedom of 
residence given by the King of Malabar, dec" 

The narrative states that they migrated after the destruction of 
the second temple, to India. The King of Malabar granted them 
lands in A. D., 490, and this grant, according to custom, was engraved 
on a brass plate, which they still had in possession. He ^rther 
states that the native annals of Malabar, confirm these, and many 
other details, which will be found in the work alluded to. The Ma- 
homedan histories of later ages also support these facts. 

Of the Black Jews he says : '' Their Hindoo complexion and th^ 
very imperfect resemblance to the JSuropean Jews, indicate that they 
have been detached from the parent-stock in Judea, many ages before 
the Jews in the West, and that l^ere have been intermarriages with 
families not Israelitish, * * * * The White Jews look upon 
the Black Jews as an inferior race, and as not of pure caste, which 
plainly tlemonstrates thai they do not spring from a comm^on stock in 

It will be thus seen that the testimony of Dr. Buchanan, than whom 
there can be no more competent or reliable authority, leaves no 
reasonable ground to doubt that the White Jews had been living at 
least 1500 years in Malabar, and were still White Jews, without any 
i^proximation to the type of the Hindoos, and that the Blad^ Jews 
are an ^Hnferior race''' — "not of pure caste," or, in other words, 
adulterated with dark Hin||oos. This testimony is confirmed by 
Wooi/FF, in his Missionary Researches, who also travelled in India; 
and we know of no opposing evidence of weight. The Black Jews 
are probably a portion Gi the ten tribes who wandered o^ and, like 
the others, as before stated, have mingled with other races. 


How, let us ask, could Mr. Pbichabd pass over sui^ evideiuca, 
«iid without one word to rebut it, and say there, is " no evidi^ice'' 
that the Black Jews are not pure 1 How, too, can. he acknowledge, 
as he, and as every body must, that the White Jews have been living 
in the same climate for at least 1500 years without change, and yet 
contend that the so-called Black Jews, though repudiated by their 
mrhite neighbors, are really pure Jews. If 1500 years, which would 
:give about fifty generations, cannot produce amongst the White Jew» 
.any approximation in type to their Hindoo neighbors, can any one 
contend that 2500 years would so completely transform them 1 

The Jews of Abyssinia have also been instanced as an example of 
^ange ; but Dr. Nott here introduced some striking facts to the 
contrary, from an interesting pamphlet by the distinguished orientalist, 
Chas. T. Bskb, Esq., London, respecting this people, showing clearly 
that they are not of pure blood. Bruce, though inclined to. the 
opinion that they are pure Jews, expresses doubts ; while Prigharp 
himself supports the opinion of Bbke. 

The history of the ten tribes affords strong evidence of the influence 
of mixtures with other races. In the 8th century, (B. C.) they were 
conquered by TiglathpiLeser and Shalmaneser, and carried c^tive 
into Assyria, and their places supplied by foreign colonists from that 
country. These, with the remains of the ten tribes, formed the 
Samaritans of after times, while the great mass of these tribes were 
scattered across Asia and almost lost by amalgamation. This seems 
to be the plain teaching of sacred and profane history, and yet the 
luiinformed are discovering them, not only in the remote comers of 
the old but in the New World. The aborigines of America have 
been taken for the lost tribes, and California for the land of Ophir — 
both ideas equally ridiculous. We cannot imagine, if all other testi- 
mony were wanting, how these tribes should have lost all traces 
of their religion, and even their family names, to say nothing of their 

The following extract from the JSncyclopoedia Britannica, will be 
found interesting in connection with this subject : 

'^ The A%hans, as before remarked, bear strong marks of Jewish 
type, and are doubtless descended from the ten tribes." ''The Ai^ 
ghans have no resemblance to the Tartars who surround them, in 
person, habits or language. Sir William Jonbs is inclined to believe 
that their descent may be traced to the Israelites, and adds that the 
best informed Persian historians have adopted the same c^ttnion* jQie 


Aifg^ns have traditions among themaolves, whidi render it very 
probable that this is the just acoount of their origin. Many of their 
families are distinguished by names of Jewish tribes, though, since 
their conversicm to the Islam, they oonoeal their descent with the 
most scrupulous care ; and the whole is confirmed by the circamstanoe 
that the Pushto has so near an affinity with the Chaldaic that it may 
justly be regarded as a dialect of that tongue. They are now con- 
founded with the Arabs.'' 

Here again we have strong evidence of the permanence of type. 
These tribes were carried off captive in the eighth c^itury B^ C.y or 
about 2600 years ago ; they have been persecuted to the last degree, 
and their blood greatly adulterated, and yet " in person, in habits, in 
language," etc., they still show their Hebrew origin. 

Though the object of Dr. Nott was simply to give a sketch of the 
physical history of the Jews, as illustrative of that of the whole 
human family; yet the Gypsies, in their history, present such 
curious analogies with the Jews, that he could not resist the tempta- 
tion of offering a few passing remarks on this singular race. In the 
language of Borrow, who has seen much of them, written much 
about, and who spoke their language, " both had an exode — ^botii 
were exiles, and dispersed amongst Gentiles, by whom they are hated 
and despised, and whom they hate and despise ; both possess a pecu- 
liar countenance, by which they may, without difficulty, be distin- 
guished from other nations; but with these points the similarity 
terminates. The Israelites have a peculiar religion, to which they 
are fanatically attached — the Gypsies have none ; the Israelites have 
an authentic history — ^the Gypsies have no history, and do not even 
know their original country." 

Though the history of this people is involved in obscurity, it is 
conceded, from their language, their physical type, etc., that they 
came from India, where similar wandering tribes are still seen in 
certain parts of that country ; but how long they had been detached 
from other tribes, while there, or at what time, and by what route, 
they migrated, are still matters of doubt. Borrow thinks, and gives 
good reasons for the opinion, that they may have been wandering m 
the North, amongst the Slavonic races, before they come within the 
reach of our history. By many it is believed that they fled before 
the exterminating sword of Tamerlane, who ravaged India in 1398-'9. 
But, be all this as* it may, it is certain that a few years after this date 
they first appeared in Germany, and were soon scattered all ov^ 



_ r 

!Eun>pe. Their entire number now is estimated at about 700,0W, 
and they are scattered over Asia, Africa, Europe, and oven South 
America. They a^e seen in Russia, living in open tents where the 
thermometer is 25® and SO*' below the freezing point ; they are found 
in the torrid zone, and in all intermediate latitudes. 

Thus we see the Gypsies scattered, for at least 450 years, through 
all climates, and amongst all nations — exposed to want, misery and 
suffering in every shape — subjected, in the highest degree, to all those 
physical causes which are said to change races, and yet, like the Jews, 
retaining their peculiar type, habits, customs, and even peculiar Ian. 
guage. Unlike the Jews, they have never taken part in the march 
of civilization, but have every where kept themselves isolated. Like 
the Hindoos, they have much smaller heads than the Hebrews and 
other white races, and their lives and characters have been the result 
of an inferior organization, which they received from the Almighty. 
Intellectual activity and progression belong to the very nature of 
the Jewish race — ^intellectual quietude and dislike for change be- 
long to the Hindoo races. 

Though, by their mode of life, exposed to all those hardships which 
destroy beauty in the white races, in both old and young. Borrow 
tells us this race " is, by nature, perhaps, the most beautiful in the 
world ; and among the children of the Russian Gypsies are to be 
found countenances, to do justice to which would require the pendl 
of a Mmdllo." Their great hardships, however, destroy their beauty 
early, and they often become extremely ugly in age. 

The Magyars, who played such an important part in the recent 
Hungarian stru^le, might be dted as another example of preserva- 
tion of type. They belong to the great Tartar subdivision of the 
Oaucasian family, and detached themselves about the year 880, A.D. 
(1000 years ago,) from their Asiatic connections, advancing into 
Europe under their chief Arphad. There are now in Hungary about 
3)500,000 of this race ; and we here see them still preserving their 
original type in one of the finest portions of Europe, where the 
fiurest skins of Teutonic type flourish in perfection. 

But it does not enter into the design of this paper to bring before 
you a tithe of the examples of permanence of type, or to show how 
little historical evidence can be found to sustain the supposed instances 
of change of type, which have been brought forward by the advocates 
of a common origin for all the races of the globe. Enough has been 
said to satisfy any unprejudiced mind that the Jewish race, from the 


time of Abraham to the present, through more thaa one hiindr^ 
generations, has preserved its type, and, a fortiori^ for the tea gene- 
nttioQs between him and Noah. The evid«aoea of other t jpea 
equally well marked as the Hebrews, tmd contempcNrary, or eiren 
antedating the remotest gleam of Hebrew history, will be reserved 
f(Hr another occasion — China, Egypt, America, ete. 

Much ciHifiision has been thrown into the natural history of man 
by the introduction of arbitrary classifications, and terms to. designate 
certain groups of races, as Caucasian, Negro, etc., which have no 
foundation in nature. It has been assumed, without a partide of 
proof, that each of these groups has a commton origin, to say nothing 
of unity for aU. There is abundant reason for the opinion tiiat.sev&! 
ral types have been included under each of these terms. We cer^ 
tainly have no chronology, sacred or pro&ne, which will allow us to 
compress all the so<»klled Caucasians — ^viz: £gyptian9, Hebrews^ 
Hindoos, Persians, Celts, Slavonians, Teutonic &milies, Tartars, etc. — 
into one origin; and so with the endless types among the darjc- 
skinned races of Africa, etc. 

The writer regarded the subject of ethnography not merely as a 
link in the chain of science to amuse the curious, or to funu^h analo* 
gies to Ught other investigations, but as one of great pracUeal 
importance in its bearings on the future destiny of racesv 

Dr. NoTT here alluded to the fact, which will not be denied, of 
the superior intelligence of the Mulattoes, when compared with the 
pure negroes. The pure blacks, wh«a left to themselves, have neve^ 
been aMe to sustain a rational form of govemm^t, and in Hayti 
barbarism advances as the white blood is expelled. 

He closed by saying that though he looked with, deep interest at 
the experiment now making in Liberia, as the last hope of the Negro 
race, he could not but predict, and that, too, with painful confid^scei 
its utter and speedy failure. This colony now is sustained solely by 
the support which it receives from the whites without, and by die 
white blood coursing through the veins of their leaders at h<»ne. 
President Roberts is 'Hhree-fourths white blood, with florid skin^ 
red hair," etc., and, with one or two exceptions, all those who have 
figured in Liberia are Mulattoes. 

After the abstract of Dr. Nott's paper was read, Prof. Agnaacik 
rose and remarked that he would take this opportunity to cosreet 
some mis-statranents, or at least misapprehensions of his viewis^ on 

FOR THX AsvAsfomaan of sooaroB. lOT 

the subject of the Unity of the Human Race, or rather with regard to 
the diversity of the different races of men. He said that he regarded - 
all the races of men as one in the possession in common, of all thea-t- 
attributes of humanity; as one in the possession of moral and intel- 
lectual powers, that raise them above the brutes, and by which they 
are allied to the Deity ; as one in the hope of eternal life through the 
means pointed out by revelation. In all these characteristics, though 
eadiibited in very different degrees, he had never denied that they oon^^ 
stituted one brotherhood. But, viewed zoologically, the several races 
of men were well marJced and distinct. That in t^e geographical dis- 
tiibution of animals, there * could be shown to be distinct zoological 
provinoes, each characterized by its peculiar Faima, and that therefose 
animals did not originate from a common centre, nor from a single 
pair, but according to the laws which at present still regulate thdr 
existence. That the principal races of men in their natural distri- 
bution, cover the same extent of ground as these zoological pro« 
vinces, and that this fact, as well as others that might be mentioned, 
tends to prove that the differences we notice at present between the 
races were also primitive, and that these races did not originate 
fnmi a common centre, nor from a single pair. That among the 
facts corroborating this view, was the permanence of the difference 
between the Caucasian and the Negro, the degree of this difference 
being as well marked in the remotest times as at present, as was 
proved by ancient records and monuments, as for instance those of 
Mero6. He maintained that this view, though opposed to that ge- 
nerally held, did not militate against the teachings of Scripture His* 
tory, since he regarded it as expressly declaring, that as early as the 
days of Caik, there were other lands already peopled, in which the 
wanderer took refuge. 

At 1 o'clock, there was a recess for fifteen minutes. After recess 
the Association was called to order by Professor Bachs, and the 
Hon. B. F. PoRTKB, of Charleston, S. C, nominated by the Stand- 
ing Committee, was unanimously elected a member of the Associa- 

Dr. Bachman was called to the Chair, and the Association pro- 
ceeded to business. 

An abstract of the following paper, was read by Prof. Gibbbb, to 
whom it had been referred. 

106 PROdSDnroB of thb amsricai^ assooiation 

A Jiicroseopie examination and description of some of the Piles of 
•head of Albinos; "by P. A. Browns, LL. D. 

The word Albino, (from " Albidus," inclining to white,) is Portu- 
guese, and was originally applied to some individuals found upon the 
Coast of Africa, who, though descended from negroes, had a pale, 
pinkey, and unnatural tint of skin, rose colored iris, and red pupil 
to their eyes, and soft white pile. It is now extended to all persons 
of whatever nation or country, who have silky, dirty, or reddish- 
white colored* pile, a pale reddish-white skin, red pupils, and weak 
sight. The number of these individuals is not great. Van Aurinoe f 
computes that they do not exceed one in a million of the inhabitants 
of this earth, yet Dr. Prichard treats them as a distinct race. In 
his researches on the physical history of man, he divides the human 
&mily into the Melanic, or black-haired race ; the Xanthous, or yellow 
haired, and the Albino, or white-haired. We shall see in the sequel 
what ground there is for this latter distinction. 

No. 1. Examination and description of the pile of the head of the 
wMte Albino, Mary Mc Williams, aged 25, bom in Ireland. Speci- 
men presented by Dr. Klapp, of the Pennsylvania Hospital, in the 
dtjr of Philadelphia, the 22d of March, 1849. 

Lengthy (artificial) four inches. 

ShapCy oval, compressed, tapering, for example, a young fila- 
ment, one inch, long, has for its diameter, at the lower extremity, 
1-416 by 1-200, m the centre 1-625 by 1-312, and at the apex, 
1-5000 of an inch. 

Cbfor, white, with a slight tinge of yellow. 

Lustre^ considerable. 

Direction^ flowing. 

Inclinations^ 1 have no means of ascertaining. 

Ductility^ Elasticity^ and Tenacity. 
One inch of filament, the Barometer being 39, the Thermometer 
being 72, and the Dew Point being 68. 

* What is generally denominated grey hair ie colorless, 
i In History of Man, p. 71. 


With 170 grains stretched 1-90 of an inch, and when the weight 
was removed the elasticity was entire. 

With 220 grains stretched 2-90 of an inch, elasticity entire. 
" 270 " " 4-90 " minus 1-90 of an inch. 

« 320 " " 6-90 " " 1-90 " 

" 470 " " 0-90 " " 1-90 " 

" 520 " «•• 7-90 " " 1-90 " 

" 570 " " 10-90 " " 2W " 

« 620 " " 31-90 " " 13-90 •' 

" 070 " " 35-90 " " 17-90 " 

" 720 « " 40-90 " " 22-90 '* 

" 770 « " 44-90 " " 25-90 " 

** 820 " " 47-90 " " 33-90 " 

" 870 it broke. 
Fracture abrupt. 

Button, Sheath, and Follicle, I had none to examine. 
Shaft, uneven, bulged, flattened, and sunken in different places. 
Cortex transversely striated the whole length of the shaft ; Ribbons 
of cortex, artificially detached from the body of the shaft, exhibit 
transverse divisions, the largest portion measuring 1-281 of an inch. 
Intermediate Fibres, white, lustrous, and with a diameter, of from 
1-2500 to 1-5000 of an inch. The mass of fibres divided into sections 
or nodes, when the shaft is crushed by passing it between rollers, 
these fibres are distinctly seen ; they are white, lustrous and partially 
separated, but no canal or coloring matter is to be observed through 
the interstices.* 

Centre has a canal for the conveyance of the coloring matter, 
which is greenish white, opaque and interrupted. When the cortex 
and intermediate fibres are artificially made transparent, the coloring 
matter is seen collected in spires and tangled threads, of a dead 
plumbeous color, interrupted by vacant spaces in the canal. 
Apex, very pointed, none furcated. 

Disks or transverse sections, plumbeous colored, with sometimes 
a minute central speck, which is white and opaque. 

No 2. Examination and description of the pile of the head of the 

* The same experiment was tried upon the other speeknens, and the same reeolt 
ansaed ; Irat when the wool of a pore Negro, or the black wool of Sheep, w9B sim- 
ilarly treated, the fibres were black. 

liO PHcxmBfOKUA OF not saamotks jamoGt^aiov 

Ivead of the white Albino, Jameb Spenob, Esq., of Phttad^pfaia^ aged 
21, whose father had brown and whose mother had bhick hair* 
Spedmen presented by himself, in 1849. 

Lengthy (artificial) two inches and a half. 

Shape oval, 1-458 by 1-937 of an indi. Tapering, for example, a 
young filament, one inch long, measured at its lower extremity 1-279, 
in the centre, 1-364, and at the apexj 1,2500 of an inch. 

Color, white, with a very slight tinge of straw color. 

Lustre, considerable. 

Direction, flowing. 

Inclination, at an acute angle to the epidermis. 

Ductility, Elasticity, and Tenacity, 
The Barometer, Thermometer, and Dew Point being t^ same as 
before stated, one inch of filament. 

With 170 grains stretched 1-90 of an inch. Elasticity entire when the 

weight was removed* 
" 400 " " 2-90 " " 

" 520 " " 3j90 " " 

a 570 (( « 4.9Q « u 

« 725 " " 10-90 " mimi8 4.90 

" 970 it broke. 

Fractmre almipt, a small portion of the cortex bein^ abraded. 



■ Shaft uneven,' bulged, flattened and sunken. 

jdW^'tivQBversely striated the whole }^!igth of the ^la^; the 
i^risB numerous. 

Intermediate FUfres. Having i»rtiSeially mwj&wed the eoeteK, ithe 
intermediate fibree^ar^ eaqposed^to view^ ^heyafedivided^tnaoaTeraely; 
into sections or nodes of the Mlo^ing lefigths, "viz.: vI487, 1-125, 
andl^Uiaofan inch. TheiBteMt^iQes^aarel^ttidB^w^ 
white, but which, hfexpomxfe to^tii^iiilmospheii^vtuEn ^ttak 4x^ 

^^Oenti^hOBmah' l^]»ttrt^dally f^»iidering'tiie'eoBtex«nd itttevme- 
diate fibres transparent, the colouring matter is seen, consisting (^ 
postioBBof wequalaizes^of n^ii^s or thi^eadaofta.plumibeous- oelawr. 
Hhie wasashM ittdMaaater id l«4iM0 of ma^ inch, bat >the dmada^re 
too small for measurement. 

90B ms AAVAnoMittn* or flonwox. Ill 

- jPnfe, ortfsnerrerse seetions shew a plumbeous colour either nosh* 
tmuous or with a minute central speck. 

No. 3. Examination and description of the pile of the head of the 
black Albino Boy, ten years old, both of whose parents ore black. 
Spedmen presented by Dr. Nott, of MobUe, Alabama. 

Lengthy (natural) one inch and two tenths. 

iS%aj9«, eccentrically elliptical, diameter 1<264 by 1-625 of an inch. 
Tapering, ^or instance, a young filament measuring one inch and two- 
tenths, had the following diameters, viz : at the lower extremity 
1-625 in the centre 1-937, at the apex, 1-1250 of an inch. ^ 

Color ^ dirty reddish white. 

lAistre^ none. 

IHrecfion, crisped and frizzled and spirally curled. Diameter of 
^e curls 2-10 of an inch. 

Ihelination. I have no means of ascertaining. 

Ductility, Elasticity and TeruiLcity. 

One inch of filament, the Barometer, Thermometer and Dew 
Point being as above stated. 
With 160 grains it stretched 1-90 of an inch, elasticity entire. 

" 470 " '^ " 

" 670 " " 

820 " " 

« 870 " " 

920 " « 

" 970 " " 

" 1020 " " 

" 1070 " " 

" 1220 it broke. 

Fracture splintery. 

Button hooked, knotted, and otherwise distorted. One of them 
besides the main root had two others of smaller dimensions. 

Skeaih large, white, opaque and sometimes divided. 

FoJUele have none to examine. 

SJurft uneven, bulged, flattened and sunken. 

Cortex irtriated, striie sometime intersecting at right angles. 

Intermediate fibres white andlustrous; diameter of one of the 
smailest 1-2500 of an inch. 

Cmtral ihhaly with detached portions of plumbeoi» colored 
sphres, or threads of coloring matter. Hie greatest dimenaioiMi 





















minus 8-90 of an inch 









of a mass 1-2&00 of an inoh ; the threads too minute for measure- 

Apex pointed, furcated or brushy. 

Disks plumbeous color throughout. 

No. 4. Examination and description of the pile of the head of 
black Albino boy, of Gape May, New-Jersey, aged 12 years. Spe- 
cimen presented by Mrs. Gabwoob. His &ther is blaek and his 
mother a dark mulatto; they have five children, of whom three, 
-viz : two males and a female are Albinos, the other two are black 
and have negroes wool. 

Lengthy (natural,) 2 inches and 1-lOth. 

Shape, eccentrically elliptical with a diameter of 1-416 by 1-937 
of an inch. Tapering, for example, a young pile measuring 2 and 1-10 
inches, had at its inferior extremity 1-281, — ^in the centre 1-364, and 
at the apex 1-1250 of an inch. 

Color, dirty white. 

Lustre, none. 

Direction, frizzled and spirally curled. Diameter of the ourls 
1-10 of an inch. 

Inclination, I have no means of ascertaining with certainty, but 
am informed that it is right aogle to the epidermis. 

Ductility, Elasticity and Tenacity. 
One inch of filament, the Barometer, Thermometer and Dew 
Point, being as before stated, 



grains it si 


ed 1-90 


}h, elasticity entire. 



































minus 4-90 



















































870 it broke. 


J^acture, brushy. 

Button, sheath a,nd follicle. I have none to examine. 

Shaft uneven, bulged, flattened and sunken. 

Cortex striated, strisB numerous and confused. 

Intermediate fibres white, lustrous ; diameter of one of the smal. 
lest 1-5000 of an inch. 

Centre, a canal enclosing a coloring matter, which is white, with a 
slight tinge of yellow, interrupted ; diameter 1-1875 of an inch. 
When the cortex and intermediate fibres are artificially made trans- 
parent, the coloring matter is seen in plumbeous masses of spires or 
threads ; diameter of the masses 1-2500 of an inch, the threads too 
minute for measurement. 

Apex very pointed. 

Disks plumbeous, colored with a minute light colored speck in the 

I have no pile of an American Indian Albino, but notice that 
Wafer states that he saw many of them among the copper colored 
native American Indians of the Isthmus of Darien. He says that 
they are not a distinct race, but that they are descended from these 
copper colored Indian parents.* 

Mr. Jefferson! mentions four cases of Albinos known to him- 
self, and three others of whom he was informed, all of them de- 
scended from negro parents, with no mixture of white blood. 

There are also Albinos among the lower animals, whose pile it is 
my intention to examine and describe at some future day. 

It appears, from the foregoing examinations and descriptions— 

Ist. That the covering of the head of the Albinos is pile. Its ge- 
neral form and its ductility and elasticity, are sufficient to entitle it 
to a place in that category. 

2d. That specimens No. 1 and 2, by their oval shape, flowing di- 
rection, acute inclination, and being formed of three distinct parts, 
one of which is a central canal for the conveyance of the coloring 
matter, entitle the individuals upon whom they grew, respectively, 
to be ranked with the oval haired species of men. But that the 

* MiLBTiN in History of Man, &.C., p. 166, says that Albinos appear among all 
nations ; they occur among the fairest of Europe and the darkest of Africa, in 
Java, Ceylon, and the Continent of India. Captain Cook saw them in Ottaheite, 
and WiNTEBBOTTOM mentions having seen them at Sierre Leone, and the neighbor- 
ing parts of the African Coast. 

t Notes on Virginia,- 139. 


filaments gradually tapering from the inferior to tlie superior ex- 
tremity, — the unevenness of sur&ce of the shaft, and the disposition 
of the coloring matter in spires and threads, shew that they are a 
variety of that species. 

3d. That specimens No. 3 and 4, by their eccentrically elliptical 
shape, crisped, frizzed and spirally curled direction, and probably by 
the inclination entitle the individuals upon whose heads they grew, 
respectively, to be ranked with the eccentrically elliptical haired 
species or negro. But that their gradual tapering, their unevenness 
of surface, and the disposition of the coloring matter in a central 
canal, shew that they are a variety of that species. 

Wherefore there is no ground for treating the Albino as a distinct 
race, as Dr. Prichard has done. 

The cause of the production of Albinos is unknown ; but it is 
generally (and I think erroneously,) attributed to imperfect generor 
tion, for the pile of the black Albino is more perfect than the pile 
of the negro, in having a distinct apparatus^ viz. : a central canal 
for the conveyance of the coloring matter. 

L'Heritier analyzed the pile of the Albino, and found therein 
two kinds of fat, one liquid and destitute of color and the other 
solid and white, like stearine. (Trait6 de Chem. Path.) It was, 
probably, the latter, which I saw under the microscope. 

Mr. Jefferson is of opinion that the cause which produces the 
Albino is more incident to the female than the male sex ; but he 
was not acquainted with a sufficient number of cases to enable him 
to establish such a general rule, nor is he confirmed by succeeding 

Martin, in History of Man, <Sic., p. 1^, says that ^^ the oonstitOf 
tion of the Albinos is feeble." In examining the four specimens for 
ductility^ elasticity and tenacity^ I found that the filaments were 
possessed of a fair proportion of these properties, which are con- 
sidered as tests of vital strength. 

This author also states that their intellectual powers are often, if 
not always, of a comparative inferiority. I have no means of judg- 
ing of the correctness of this remark. 

It is said that "Albinos breeding with Albinos produce their kind, 
but that when bred with the ordinary race the peculiarity disap- 
pears in the descendants, breaking out however now and then, as if 
the tendency lurked in the blood." (Martin's History of Man, &c^ 
p. 166.) This is altogether at variance with Dr. Prighard's notion 
of Albinos being a distinct race of mankind. 


The next paper was given, 

On an easy mode of illustrating the difference in the Velocity of 
Sound in different Cktses, by Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes. 

Scientific experiments may be classed in two ■ divisions, as experi- 
ments of research, or experiments of demonstration. The former 
must ever take the highest rank, as their results, whether negative or 
positive, are additions to the domains of Science, enlarging our know- 
ledge of the ways of God in the material world. But frequently, if 
not generally, these results are obtained by means of elaborate appa- 
ratus and trains of experiment, which are wholly unsuited to the 
purpose of demonstrating the facts in question to others pursuing the 
branches to which the facts in question belong. In many cases 
simpler modes are discovered of reaching the results, even when the 
same degree of exactness in the numerical expression be required ; 
and if a moderate degree of approximation, in this respect, suffice, 
very easy means may be devised, in many cases, of demonstrating 
the fact or law in question, even to a large number of auditors at 
once, and must be regarded as valuable aids in scientific instruction. 
These considerations must be my apology for bringing before the 
Association the apparatus I am about to use, and my remarks thereon, 
in all which there is little, save the application, that can lay claim to 
originality. They may be of U8e,'however, to those members who, 
like myself, are engaged in the duties of instruction. 

To produce the sound-waves in air, or in the gas under exp^ment, 
an ordinary C tuning fork, furnished with a disc, is used, as described 
in Herschel's Treatise on Sound, sec. 186, and on the use of this 
instrument much of the simplicity of the apparatus depends. By 
means of the Sir^ne the number of vibrations it makes per second 
may be determined. In the one I use the number of double vibra- 
ti(ms is 520 per second. In order to show that pipes of a certain 
length only will vibrate in unison with this fork, a glass tube of an 
inch and a quarter or an inch and a half in diameter, and seven or 
eight inches in length, (a cylindrical lamp-chimney will answer,) is 
partially immersed in a small cistern of water or mercury, which 
forms a bottom to the tube, and the tube elevated or depressed until 
it yields a clear resonance to the tuning fork held over its mouth in 
a state of vibration, or a plug loosely fitting the unoccupied part of 
the dstem may be depressed or elevated, in order to change the 


level of the liquid, the glass pipe being fixed. The length of the 
pipe now occupied by air, ^dbrating in unison with the fork, may be 
measured or read off on a scale attached to the pipe itself. A tin 
tube of the same dimensions may then be made and used with that 
fork in all experiments where atmospheric air is concerned; that 
which I use with the above mentioned fork is 0.11 of a foot in diam- 
eter and 0.54 of a foot in length. If, now, one of the heavier gases, 
carbonic acid for instance, be conducted into this tube, (from a 
caoutchouc reservoir, or from the common apparatus for evolving 
and washing it,) it will no longer yield a resonance, and if we have 
recourse to the glass pipe in the cistern of mercury, it will be found 
necessary to depress it, and thus to shorten the column of gas intro- 
duced, to a certain point at which the resonance will be nearly, if not 
quite, as clear as in atmospheric air. A tin tube, constructed of the 
same length, will serve for future experiments. With the C fork, a 
tube 0.11 of a foot in diameter and 0.44 in length, will vibrate in 
unison when filled with carbonic acid gas. Since the unison is a con- 
sequence of the isochronism of the vibrations of the tuning fork and 
of the aeriform fluid in the pipe, a pulse must travel from the mouth 
of the pipe to the bottom, and back to the mouth — ^that is through 
twice the length of the pipe — ^in the time of one vibration of the fork, 
or over four times the length of the pipe in a double vibration — that 
is, in l-520th of a second. A rough approximation may therefore 
be made to the velocity of sound in these two fluids: in air, the 
space traversed by the pulse in one second will be expressed in feet 
by 0.54X4X520= 1123; and in carbonic acid by 0.44x4x520=915, 
the temperature of experiment being about 82° Fahrenheit. The 
ratio of these velocities may be compared with the ratio of the 
densities of the two fluids, on which they depend ; for, the motive 
forces — that is, the elasticities — ^being the same, both pipes being 
open to the atmosphere, the velocities ought to be inversely pro- 
portional to the square root of the densities ; now, the length of the 
tubes, which give the velocities, are as 100 I 127, and the square 
roots of the densities are as 124 I 100. 

With other heavy gases similar experiments may be performed. 
For nitrous oxide the pipe for carbonic acid will answer, as the two 
gases have almost precisely the same density. For heavier gases 
the pipe must be shorter ; for chlorine, for instance, about five-eighths 
that for air. Heavy vapors, like that of ether, may be subjected to 
experiment in a similar manner, by immersing the pipe, with a layer 


of ether at the bottom, in water at the temperature of 100^ Fahr., 
which will keep up a supply of vapor with the elasticity of th6 
atmosphere ; or the glass tube, with the mercurial cistern, may be 
used, the mercury being maintained at the same temperature. 

For gases lighter than air, the pipe must be longer than air, and 
of course supported in an inverted position ; this circumstance ren- 
ders manipulation rather more difficult, yet still possible with gases 
of moderate levity, such as ammonia. With hydrogen, however, I 
have not succeeded, apparently from the difficulty with which the 
tuning fork commands a vibration in a pipe of the length required, 
about 20 inches. 

In all these experiments a steady cuiTcnt of gas is requisite to 
keep the pipe full to overflowing. 

In addition to the apparatus just described, I use, in order to illus* 
trate the relation of open and stopped pipes, a pipe of tin, open at 
both ends, of the same diameter as the preceding, and of such 
length that it yields a clear resonance with the tuning fork employed. 
With the fork already mentioned, this length is 1.09 fl., almost 
exactly twice the other. To obtain the proper length I use a pipe 
a foot long, with a short tube of four inches fitting it closely, and 
sliding on the outside, by which the length of the aerial vibrating 
column can be altered until unison is obtained. If the velocity of 
sound is deduced from this length of pipe, it comes out 1 134 feet, 
at the temperature of 82°. This can easily be reduced to the tem- 
peratnre of 32. For, other things being equal, velocities are as the 
square roots of the motive forces, and the motive forces, that is the 
elasticities, according to the law of expansion of aeriform bodies, 
are as 540 I 490 at the two temperatures 82 and 32, their square 
roots are as 22 : 21 nearly, and the velocity at 32 comes out 1082 
feet. By reduction in the same ratio, the velocity of sound in carbo- 
nic acid at 32 will be 874 feet. In order to show that there is in the 
middle of the tube a nodal point or lamina, where the variation in 
condensation and rarefaction is greatest, a second tube of the same 
dimensions is used, with an aperture at the middle ; this yields no 
resonance if the aperture is open, but sounds as clearly aa the first 
if it be stopped with the finger. To prove that the two half columns 
of air are vibrating in opposition, a leaden tube three-quarters of an 
inch in diameter and 1.13 ft. in length, is bent round until the two 
terminal apertures are opposed to each other, at a distance of three- 
quarters of an inch, and between them the tuninjr fork is vibrated ; 


the dear resonance immediately obtained proves that ea^ half 
vibrates in unison with the adjacent prong of the fork, and as these 
vibrate in opposition, so must the two halves of the pipe.* Pipes 
three times and four times the length of the standard stopped pipe for 
air — ^the first closed at one end, the other open at both ends — ^are used 
for showing that pipes may vibrate in segments. These pipes yield a 
clear resonance with the same fork as before, the first vibrating in 
three half segments, the second in four ; nodal points are shovm by 
the absence of resonance, if an aperture be opened, in the first, at 
one-third its length from the open end — ^in the second, at one-fourth 
the length from either end, while an opening at the middle of a ven- 
tral segment will have no influence on the resonance. Tubes of glass 
cut off at the proper length, open at both ends, are used for showing 
that the material of the pipe does not influence the unison. Beats 
are shown by Herschel's experiment, described in Art. 205 of his 
Treatise on Sound, Encyc. Metr.; two C forks being brought (by 
loading with wax) nearly, but not exactly, in unison with each other, 
and made to vibrate simultaneously over the standard pipe for air. 
By means of this pipe, also, can be exhibited to a number of auditors 
at once Dr. Young's experiment, by holding the C fork over its 
mouth, and rotating the fork on its axis ; in two positions, at right 
angles to each other, the resonance will be heard, and in two others 
intermediate between the former, it will become inaudible. 

I have used this apparatus for several years past in illustrating the 
department of Acoustics in my annual course of lectures in the Col- 
lege of Charleston, and perhaps no simpler apparatus can be devised 
for demonstrating the points to which it is applied. If the pipes were 
made of brass, the sliding tube might be made to fit accurately, and 
adjustment to unison be easy, both in stopped and open pipes. A 
larger fork would maintain its vibrations a longer time, as, for exam- 
ple, a fork giving the octave below the ordinary C tuning fork ; it 
would of course require pipes of double length and proportionally 
increased diameter. 

Experiments illustrating the subject of this paper were performed 
before the Association by Professor Gibbbs. 

On an apparent anomaly in Algebra; hy Cha&lbs E. Wbst, Rut- 
get^ 8 InsHtfUe^ New- York, 

* This eiEperiment is gifen by Mr. Adajis in one of the volumes of the Proceed- 
ings of the British Association. 


Prof. Aoassiz, before proceeding with his paper on the MednsaB, 
presented to the Association his recent work on Lake Superior, with 
a narrative of the tour, by J. E. Cabot, just issued from the press. 

On the Morphology of the Medusoe ; by Prof. Aoassiz. 

SiNOB it has been ascertained that the Medusee pass through dif> 
ferent forms in their various metamorphoses, and that their dianges 
are ^rther complicated by an alternation of generations, it is a mat- 
ter of importance to learn how far the Polypoid stems from which 
free Medusae arise, are themselves allied to Medusae, or to Polypi. 
As long as the so-called Hydroid Polypi were supposed to be perfect 
animals, propagating themselves under the same forms, it was natu- 
ral from their general appearance that they should be considered as 
a peculiar type among Polypi, and that the question of their struc- 
tural relations to Medusae should not even be raised. But now it is 
a matter of the first importance to ascertain whether in this Polypoid 
form, their structure is more closely related to Medusae than to Po- 
lypi, and whether their relation to Polypi is merely analogical, and 
not truly structural. I have investigated this subject at some length, 
and satisfied myself that even in an anatomical point, of view, the 
so-called Hydroid Polypi should be referred to the class of Medu- 
sae, and that their resemblance to Polypi is simply the result of a 
close analogy, and not of true affinity, as the Morphology of their 
parts indicates a very close affinity to Medusae. 

In order to appreciate fully this statement, it is necessary to re- 
member that true Polypi have a distinct digestive sac hanging into 
the large main cavity of the body, and that this cavity is sub-divided 
into more or less distinct compartments by partitions projecting in- 
wardly. Again, the tentacles arise from the upper margin of the 
main cavity, and are, in no instance, appendages of the margin of 
the mouth. In Medusae, on the contrary, the main cavity is undi- 
vided, and where there is a peripheric prolongation, it assumes the 
shape of circumscribed tubes, penetrating into the substance of the 
body. Again, the tentacles are, at least, of two kinds, those whidi 
arise from the margin of the body, and others which are prolonga- 
tions of the margin of the mouth. 

If, with these ' facts before our minds, we now attempt a com- 
parison of the so-called Hydroid Polypi, with either Medusae or 
true Polypi, we shall find, in the first place, that the main cavity in 


Hydroid Polypi, is not divided by radiating partitions into distinct 
€oinpartments, as is the case in true Polypi, and that their buds at 
least, if not the main cavity of the system, have radiating tubes 
arising from the digestive sac and following the walls of the main 
cavity. But what is more striking and characteristic in Hydroid 
Polypi, is the circumstance that the main bulk of the body is con- 
stantly well circumscribed, and its margin or surface provided with 
peculiar tentacles, while the proboscis or mouth assumes various 
forms, projecting sometimes in the shape of a moveable tube, or in 
the form of a prominent tubercle with a central oral opening, encir- 
cled by a row, or several rows of peculiar tentacles or fringes. 
These oral appendages may be compared morphologically to the 
fringed lobes arising from the margin of the mouth in true Medusae, 
while the tentacles of the margin and surface of the body bear the 
closest resemblance in position and relations to the tentacles arising 
from the margin of the disc in true Medusae. 

In these respects, therefore, the Hydroid Polypi are more closely 
allied by structure to true Medusae than to Polypi, and their resem- 
blance to Polypi is chiefly derived from the elongation of their ver- 
tide axis, the development of a peduncle of attachment, and the 
formation of buds which remain attached to the main body, and 
give it the appearance of a branching Polypi, while true Medusae 
are from the beginning of their independent development, free mo- 
ving animals. But it has been already ascertained in so many fami- 
lies, among Echinoderms as well as among Polypi, that there are 
types attached by stems, and others which are entirely free, not- 
withstanding their closest structural relations. That this fact can be 
no objection, but on the contrary an argument in favor of the view, 
that Hydroid Polypi, with their medusine structure, should be con- 
sidered as true Medusae, provided with a stem, rather than a peculiar 
family among Polypi, and even should there be among them forms 
which never produce free Medusae, as soon as they present those pe- 
culiar combinations of character, which occur only among Medusae, 
we shall be inclined to remove them from Polypi, and to place them 
among true Medusae. The medusoid character of the crown in Tu- 
bularia is particularly obvious, and it requires little familiarity with 
the different forms of Medusae, to feel satisfied that the inner promi- 
nent cylindrical bulb which projects above the crown of large tenta- 
cles, and is provided on its summit with another row of shorter 
tentacles, is truly analogous to the central proboscis of many discoid 


Medusae, such as Gorgonia and Sarsia, while the large tentacles 
around the central cup corresponds to the marginal tentacles of Me- 
dusae. The stem itself is analogous to the shoil; stem, by which the 
bulb of young Medusae is connected with the Hydroid Polyp from 
which they arise. This analogy further sustains the view that Hy- 
droid Polypi are true Medusae, inasmuch as here we have a crown of 
medusoid structure resting upon a stem similar to the stem of at- 
tachment of young Medusae, which is only much more elongated, 
and from which similar branches may bud. 

The analogy of some genera of Hydroid Polypi, such as Coryne 
and Syncoryna to Medusae, is apparently more remote, from the cir- 
cumstance that the tentacles are scattered around the surface of the 
terminal bulb ; but it requires only a close comparison of the mode 
of formation and increase of the tentacles in those genera in which 
they form a regular whorl, to satisfy the observer, that even in those 
Medusae, in which the regular crown of tentacles seems to form 
strictly a whorl, the tentacles in their successive development do not 
arise from the same level, but that there are some which are inserted 
nearer the centre of the axis than others ; so much so, that an elonga- 
tion of the axis upon which they stand would produce an arrangement 
similar to that which we notice in Coryne and Syncoryna, where they 
are regularly scattered. Even in the latter genus the analogy is 
complete, for the uppermost end of the main bulb terminates with a 
regular opening, surrounded with minute fringes, though this aper- 
ture seems to have been overlooked by former observers. Though 
a mouth is mentioned in the characteristics of Coryne, in Syncoryna 
it seems to have escaped attention. I may add, that there is a re- 
markable correlation between the number of tentacles which exist 
nominally upon a terminal bulb of Syncoryna and the nominal 
number of radiating tubes and tentacles, which are developed in the 
little Sarsia produced from that Hydroid Polyp. Syncoryna has 
generally sixteen tentacles, four times as many as the free Medusae 
to which it gives birth. 

Li no Hydroid Polyp is the structure of the tentacles more closely 
allied to that of some of the naked-eyed Medusae than in Syncoryna, 
for their club-shaped tentacles with lasso cells, remind us most dis- 
tinctly of the tentacles of Slabberia ; and so far as these compari- 
sons are conclusive, there remains no doubt in our mind, that from 
their structure and Morphology, the so-called Hydroid Polypi must 
be considered as true Medusae, among which they constitute a type 


analogous to the stalked Crinoid among Edunoderms ; an analogy 
which is the more remarkable, as in their ultimate generation Hy droid 
Polypi produce free Medusae, while the Comatule^ arise from the 
Crinoids provided with stems. 

Abstract of a Communieatian on the recent progress of the Telegraph 
Operations of the U, 8. Coast Survey, by Prof. A. D. Baohb. 

Prof. A. D. Baohb, Superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey, 
communicated to the Association the recent progress of the Tele- 
graph Operations of the Coast Survey, under the immediate charge- 
of Mr. Sbars C. Walker, one of the Assistants. 

A brief account of these operations to the date of August, 1849, 
was given at the last meeting of the Association. The work for 
connecting Hudson, (Ohio,) the site of Prof. Looms' astronomical 
labors, with two Atlantic stations, had then just been completed, 
thereby rendering available for longitudes the valuable series of 
occultations, eclipses and moon ctdminations,' observed by Prof. 
LooMis, from 1838 to 1844. 

In October and November, 1849, a second series of observations 
was concluded for the connection of Cincinnati Observatory, under 
the direction of Prof. Mitohel, with the Seaton station, (one of the 
Coast Survey stations in the District of Columbia.) 

Recently, in February, 1850, operations were undertaken for 
the connection of the same station (Seaton,) with the Charles- 
ton Observatory, under the direction of Professor Gibbes. These 
observations have not yet been fully reduced. As an approximate 
result, it may be mentioned that Prof Gibbbs' Observatory in 
Charleston is eleven minutes and forty-three seconds in time west 
of the meridian of the Capitol. 

In the operations of January 3d,' 1849, between Washington, 
Philadelphia, New- York, and Cambridge, (Mass.) Mr. Walker 
noticed a slight discrepancy in the local readings of the dates of the 
transits of the stars. 

This difference, though small, was still too great to be overlooked 
in the operations. In searching for the cause of the discrepancy, two 
hypotheses occurred to him. One was, that it is to be ascribed 
chiefly to the sensible time taken for the hydro-galvanic waves to be 
propagated from one station to another. A second hypothesis was, 
that this phenomenon was to be ascribed to the difference of what 


may be termed accidental circumstances, peculiar to the apparatus, 
and at the stations, and to the tel&graph wires. 

A careful discussion of the effect of these circumstances showed 
that they probably undergo a compensation in the mean of a great 
variety of experiments, and leave, apparently, the residual pheno- 
menon attributable to wave time to stand out distinctly from the 

On this hypothesis he found, from the operations of January 23d, 
1849, that the hydro-galvanic waves are propagated through about 
nineteen thousand miles per second, their velocity being about one 
tenth part of that of light, and (according to the experiments of Mr. 
Whbatstonk and Mr. Saxon) of frictional electricity. 

The conclusions derived from the work of January 23d, 1849, have 
been since confirmed, particularly by that of October 31st and No- 
vember 21st, between Washington and Cincinnati. From these 
experiments Mr. Walker found a velocity of the wave somewhat 
slower, viz : only sixteen thousand miles per second. The resistance 
of the batteries, or other circumstances of this line, may be found 
to explain this difference, which appears greater than the accidental 

From a report by Mr. R. Culmann, of the Bavarian engineers, 
now on a visit to this country, drawn up at my invitation, it seems 
not improbable that the ground offers greater facility of conduction 
than the iron wires of the size now used in telegraph lines. The 
comparative resistance of the ground, the wires and the batteries, 
has not yet been fully discussed. 

The work of February 4th, from Washington to St. Louis, via 
Pittsburg, through one thousand miles of wire and seven hundred 
miles of ground, with alternations of relative position of batteries, 
affords ample material for discussing the questions when the observa- 
tions shall have been reduced. 

The work with Charleston last month, as far as has been discussed, 
is confirmatory of former results in relation to the velocity of the 
galvanic waves, the correction for relative wave time, in the work 
with Charleston, being nearly the same as that which had been indi- 
cated by the work of the preceding night with St. Louis. The 
difference in the determinations of wave time in the different experi- 
ments seems, however, to require explanation. 

Prof MiTCHBLL has taken a different view of the explanation of 
these results from Mr. Walkbr ; and the whole subject would, na 



doubt, undergo a searching discussion. Prof. Bache observed that 
he merely stated, as reported, the present appearance of the results. 

Pro£ Bache then exhibited specimens of the actual registering 
fiUets used at Washington and St. Louis, on the 4th February last, 
and a transcript of a portion of those at Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Louis- 
ville and St. Louis ; on all of which the same time scale was printed 
automatically, by means of Mr. Saxton's circuit breaking clock, 
used at the Seaton station. 

The arbitrary signals consisted of one dot, or a pair of dots sepa- 
rated by a short line, caused by the breaking of the circuit by the 
operator at St. Louis. If the velocity of the hydro-galvanic waves 
had been as great as that of light, the centre of the St. Louis dots, 
as printed on the St. Louis and Seaton time scales, would differ only 
one-hundredth of a second, the Seaton station reading being in excess. 

The menLbers of the Association may see that instead of the 
Seaton station reading being only a hundred, it is more than ten 
times that quantity (viz : about one-eighth of a second) in excess. 

The spaces which record the clock and signal breaks have nearly 
the same deviation at all the stations, showing that the effect of the 
accidental circumstances connected with the telegraph apparatus and 
line are nearly insensible, leaving the phenomenon due to wave time 
in full relief. 

The work has not been entirely reduced, but it seems likely to 
exhibit a velocity rather below sixteen thousand miles per second. 

Prof. Bache then called the attention of the Association to an 
interesting fact which had been pointed out to him by Mr. Walker, 
viz : that, the telegraph line, when connected with a battery in action? 
propagates the hydro-galvanic waves in either direction, without inter- 

In the telegraph wire, when connected with a battery, the waves 
produced by making and breaking, when made at the same time at 
St. Louis and Washington, cross each other without interference. 

In illustration of this remark. Prof. Bache exhibited cases where 
the line made between two pauses, (or dots,) by the St. Louis ope- 
rator, at the same instant with the Seaton station clock pause, appears 
to precede the clock pause on the St. Louis register, and to follow it 
on the Seaton station register. 

This experiment appears confinnatory of Mr. Walker's wave time 
hypothesis, and, as now understood, shows that in the same manner 
as several successive syllables of sound may set out in succession 


from the same place, and be on their way at the same time to the 
listener at a distance, so also where the telegraph line is long enough, 
several waves, caused by making and breaking the circuit, and repre- 
sented on two registers by lines and dots as pauses, may be on their 
way from the signal station before the first one reaches the receiving 

Two persons at a distance may pronounce several syllables at the 
same time, and each hear those emitted by the other. 

So, on a telegraph line of two or three thousand miles in length, 
in the air, and the same in the ground, two operators may, at the 
same instant, commence a series of several dots and lines, and each 
receive the other's writing, though the waves have crossed each other 
on the way. The relative positions of the two series being reversed 
at the two stations. 

Prof Bachb then remarked on the extreme difficulty of the con- 
nection of New-Orleans with Washington, in longitude, by the tele- 
graph, at one operation, owing to unfavorable meteorological circum- 
stances along the route. 

This circumstance had induced him to make a double effort — the 
one to reach it by Charleston, the other by Cincinnati. 

He was happy to acknowledge the liberality ot the President, 
Elam Alexander, Esq., and the directors of the Southern line, in 
giving the Coast Survey free use of the line after office hours, at 
nights — ^a liberality which had also been exercised by the directors of 
the O'Ubillt lines on the Western route. 

At half past two, the Association adjourned, to meet at 6 P. M., 
at the South-Carolina Hall. 

LEWIS R. GIBBES, Secretary. 

Fourth Dayy Friday, March 15, 1850. 


Rev. Dr. Bachman was requested to take the Chair. 
Lieut. Mauhv read his paper, 

126 PRooxBDnrofi of thb ambbioah absogiaiiof 

On the General Circulation of the Atmo^here. 

Several years ago, 1 eonimeuced to gather from old sea jomnafay 
such information as they might be found to contain^ relating to tiie 
winds and currents of the sea, and to embody the infonnation ao 
obtained in a series of charts, in such a manner as to show by 
pictures, the prevailing direction of the winds and currents for every 
month, and in every part of the ocean. Indeed, the plab of die 
undertaking was to collect the experience of every navigator, and to 
present the combined results of the whole in such a maimer, that 
each one might, with a glance, have the benefit of the ezpeiienoe of 
all who had preceded him in any of the frequented parts of th» ooean. 

This enterprize has been seconded by the government and indi- 
viduals. American ship-masters generally have come into it with 
great zeal. They make the observations required on every voyage, 
and send them to me at Washington. There are some thousands or 
more ships voluntarily co-operating with me in all parts of the 
ocean, and as it might be supposed, from such a number of active 
and intelligent observers, we are collecting materiiJs of great value. 

During the course of these investigations, many interesting &cts 
are developed, amounting, in some cases, to actual discoveries of great 
interest — such as a new route, which shortens the sailing distance to 
the Equator, some fifteen or twenty per cent, and, of course, pro- 
portionately to all ports beyond. The existence in the North Atlantic 
of a regular Monsoon, and in the North Pacific near the West coast, 
of a perpetual South- West Trade Wind, near the Equator, a unique 
phenomenon, also, the existence, near the same place, of a system of 

My present purpose, however, is not to speak of the discoveries, 
but rather to treat of the insight which these investigations, underta- 
ken on such a lai^e scale, affords as to the general system of atmos- 
pherical circulation over the earth. 

They teach us to regard the atmosphere as a vast machine. 

It is a sewer into which with every breath we cast vast quantities 
of dead animal matter. It is a laboratory, into which, when the light 
and heat enter, they act upon this dead matter, decompose it, and 
resolve it into gaseous substances, to be by their action again'con- 
densed into plants and trees. 

If it were not for this condensation, the air would beeome tainted; 


FOB THB AJOYMXtemaair of acixNCB. 1^ 

it would send its impurities back into the lungs ; and continually re- 
ceiving back more in return, it would finally become unfit for the 
respiration of certain animals, and man would perish from the face of 
.the earth. 

We hunger and take food that has been gathered from the vege- 
table kingdom, into the stomach, there it is elaborated into flesh and 
blood. After it has coursed through the system, and performed its 
office, it is again cast forth into the atmosphere, to be reconverted 
into more vegetables, to serve as food for other animals. Doubtless 
the animal and vegetable kingdoms are in exact counterpoise : the 
one destroying, the other re-arranging and rendering fit for use again, , 
this same dead animal matter. In infinite wisdom, the two kingdoms 
are so balanced that there is not an insect to much on one side, nor a 
green leaf too little on the other. 

These operations are carried on daily and hourly through the 
atmosphere which we are breathing. How important and profitable 
therefore, does the study of its laws become ! 

It is an engine which pumps our rivers up from the sea, and carries 
them through the clouds to their sources in the mountains. Air and 
water are the great agents of the sun in distributing his heat over the 
surface of the globe, cooling this climate and tempering that ; and in 
this light, I propose to consider the winds and the currents. 

Though the winds blow here from the four quarters, and sometimes 
with such violence as to fill the mind with sentiments of awe, and 
^notions of terror, yet such winds, in comparison with the general 
system of atmospheric circulation, are but eddies to the main current. 
They have no more effect in deranging or disturbing that system of 
eiroulation, than the shower which they bring with them has upon 
the Gulf Stream and other great currents of the sea. 

From the parallel of about 30^ north and south, nearly to the 
Equator, we have two zones of perpetual winds, viz : the zone of 
north-east trades on this side, and of south-east on that. They blow 
perpetually, and without a moment's interruption, the year round. 
They are as steady and as constant as the current of the Mississippi 
river — always moving in the same direction. 

As these two currents of air are constantly flowing from the Poles 
towards the Equator, we are safe in assuming that the air which they 
keep in motion must return by some channel to the place near the 
Poles, whence it came, in order to supply the trades. If this were 
not so, these winds would soon exhaust the Polar regions of atmos- 


phere, and pile it up about the E/juator, and then cease for the waat 
of air to make more wind of. 

This return current, therefore, must be in the upper regions of 
atmosph re, at least until it passes over those parallels between 
which the trade winds are always blowing on the surface. The return 
current must also move in the direction opposite to the direction 
of that wind which it is intended to supply, llie direct and coun- 
ter currents are also made to move in sort of spiral or losodromio 
curves, turning to the west from the Poles to the Equator, and in 
the opposite direction from the Equator towards the Poles. 

This motion is caused by the motion of the earth on its axis. 

The earth, we know, moves from west to east. Now, if we ima- 
gine a particle of atmosphere at the North Pole, where it is at rest, 
to be put in motion in a straight line towards the Equator, we can 
easily see how this particle of air, coming from the Pole, where it 
did not partake of the diurnal motion of the earth, would, in conse- 
quence of via intrtia, find, as it travels south, the earth slipping 
under it, as it were, and thus it would appear to be blowing from 
the north-east and going towards the south-west. 

On the other hand, we can perceive how the particles of atmosphere 
that start from the Equator to take the place of the other at the 
Pole, would, OS it travels north, and in consequence of its vu inertia, 
be going towards the east faster than the earth. It would, therefore, 
appear to be blowing from the south-west and going towards the 
north-east, and exactly in the opposite direction to the other. Writing 
south for north, the same takes place between the South Pole and 
the Equator, 

Now, this is the process which is actually going on in nature, and 
if we take the motions of these two partjdes as the type of the mo- 
tion of all, we shall have on illustration of the great currents in the 
air, the Equator being a node, and there being two systems of our- 
rents — an upper and an under — between it and each Pole. 

Let us r«tuni now to our northern partible, and follow it in a roimd 
from the Pole to the Equator and back agun, supposing it, for at 
present, merely to turn back after reaching the Equator. 

Settine off from the polar reruns, this particle of air, from some 
does not appear to have been satisfactorily explained 
rs, travels in the upper regions of the atmosphere, un^l 
m the parallels of 30° and 40°. Here it meets, also 
the particle that is going from the Equator to take its 


Between these two parallels, then, these two particles meet, press 
against each other with the whole amount of their motive power, 
produce a calm and an accumulation of atmosphere sufficient to 
balance the pressure from the two winds North and South. 

From under this bank of calms, two surface winds are ejected, if 
you please, one towards the Equator, as the north-east trades — the 
other towards the Poles, as the south-west passage winds, supposing that 
we are now considering what takes place on this hemisphere only. 

These winds come out at the lower surface of the calm region, and 
consequently the place of the air borne away in this manner is supplied 
by downward currents from the super-incumbent air of the calm region. 
Like the case of a vessel of water which has two streams running 
in at the top, and two of equal capacity discharging in opposite direc- 
tions at the bottom. The motion of the water in the vessel is 

The barometer, in this calm region, stands higher than it does 
elfter to the north or to the south of it ; and this is another proof as 
to the banking up here of the atmosphere. 

Following our imaginary particle of air from the north across this 
calm belt, we now feel it moving on the surface of the earth as the 
north-east trade wind, and as such it continues on till near the Equa- 
tor, where it meets a like particle, which has blown as the south-east 

Here there is another meeting of winds, and another calm region, 
for a north-east and south-east wind cannot blow at the same time in 
the same place. The two particles have been put in motion by the 
same power ; they meet with equal force, and, therefore, at their 
place of meeting, are stopped in their course. Here there is also a 
calm belt. 

Warmed by the heat of the sun, and pressed on each side by the 
whole force of the north-east and south-east trades, they ascend — the 
reverse of the operation which took place at the other meeting near 
the parallel of 30° 

This imaginary particle now returns to the upper regions of the 
atmosphere again, and travels there until it meets its fellow particle 
from the north, where it descends as before, and continues on towards 
the Pole as a surface wind from south-west. 

Entering the Polar regions obliquely, it is pressed upon by similar 
currents coming from every meridian, and approaching the higher 
parallels more and more obliquely, until our imaginary particle, with 


all the rest, is whirled about the Pole in a eontinued circular gale, 
until, reaching the vortex, it is carried upwards to the regions of atmos- 
phere above, in which it commences again its circuit to the south. 

If we imagine this sheet to be a perpendicular section through the 
atmosphere, from the Polar to the Equatorial regions, and on it trace 
the track of our imaginary atom of air, it will describe a sort of 
true-lover's knot or figure of 8. 

Thus : commencing at the north, it goes in the upper regions as an 
atmospherical current, until it arrives between the parallels of 30*^ 
and 40° 

Here, in the calm region, it descends and becomes a sur&ce current 
in the shape of the north-east trades ; arrived near the Equator, it is 
becalmed, ascends, and commences its return to the north as an upper 
current, till it reacnes the calm regions of the " Horse Latitudes," 
where it is again becalmed. Here, though, instead of ascending, as 
at the Equator, it descends, and is felt as the south-west passage 
wind, and thus the circuit is complete. 

The Bible frequently makes allusions to the laws of nature, their 
operation and effects. But such allusions are oflen so wrapped in the 
folds of the peculiar and graceful drapery with which its language is 
occasionally clothed, that the meaning, though peeping out from its 
thin covering all the while, yet it lies, in some sense, concealed, until 
the lights and revelations of science are thrown upon it — then it 
bursts out and strikes us with more force and beauty. 

As our knowledge of nature and her laws has increased, so has our 
understanding of many passages in the Bible been improved. 

The Bible called the Earth a " round world," yet for ages it was a 
most damnable heresy for Christian men to say, the world is round ; 
and, finally, sailors circumnavigated the globe, proved the Bible to be 
right, and saved Christian men of science from the stake. 

" Canst thou tell the sweet influences of the Pleiades ? " 

Astronomers of the present day, if they have not answered the 
question, have thrown so much light upon it as to show that, if ever 
it be answered by man, he must consult the science of Astronomy. 

It has recently been all but proved, that the Earth and Sun, with 
their splendid retinue of comet, satellite and planet, are all in motion 
around some point or centre of attraction inconceivably remote, and 
that that point is in the direction of the star Alcyon, one of the 

And as for the general system of atmospherical circulation, which 


I have been so long endeavoring 41k describe, the Bible tells it all in 
a single sentence : " The wind goeth towards the south and tumeth 
about unto the north ; it whirleth about continually, and the wind 
retumeth again according to his circuits." Ecc. i, 6. 

A like operation takes place in the southern hemisphere. We now 
see the general course of the " wind in his circuits," as we see the 
general course of the water in a river. There be many abrading 
surfaces, in-egularities, etc., which produce a thousand eddies to the 
main stream, yet, nevertheless, the general direction of the whole is 
not disturbed nor affected by those counter currents ; so with the 
atmosphere and the variable winds which we find here. But, to 
return : In the lower half of the loop the wind is permanently from 
the north-east ; in the upper half it prevaUs from the southward and 
westward. Hence, the passage of sailing vessels is so much shorter 
from New- York to England than from England back this way — the 
difference is as 2 to 3. 

We see, also, that there must be about the earth three zones, in 
which calms are the prevalent condition of the air. One of these 
zones is near the Equator, where the north-east and south-east trade 
winds meet and form what is called the Equatorial calms. 

The other zones lie between those parallels where the " wind that 
goeth towards the south" meets that which '^ tumeth about unto the 

These zones are several degrees of latitude in breadth, and that in 
the North Atlantic is known as the " Horse Latitudes," from the 
circumstance that vessels bound with loads of horses from New- 
England to the West Indies were generally unfortunate here. This 
trade in horses was very great, and, in the time of stage coaches, 
consisted of old horses, which, having been broken down here, were 
taken up, &ttened and shipped off to the West Indies. 

In crossing this zone, it often happened that the calms were so 
uninterrupted that the vessel would be detained there many days, 
during which the horses would drink up all the water, become frantic 
with thirst, and the whole, or a part, would then have to be thrown 
overboard. Hence, the name of " Horse Latitudes" for this zone 
There is a duplicate to this*zone in the southern hemisphere. These 
thr^e zones encircle the Earth. 

About each pole we have, or, according to the views I have been 
endeavoring to make plain, we ought to have, a perpetual whirl- 


The wind approaches the Nortl^ole by a series of spirals from 
the south-west. If we draw a circle about the Pole, we shall see 
that the wind enters all parts of this circle from the south-west, con- 
sequently the whirlwind is created thereby, which revolves from 
right to left, or against the hands of a watch. 

At the South Pole the winds come from the north-west, and conse- 
quently here they revolve about it with the hands of a watch. 

It is a singular coincidence between these two facts thus established, 
and other facts which have been observed, and which have been set 
forth by Redfield, Reid, Piddington and others, viz : that all rotary 
storms in the northern hemisphere revolve as do the whirlwinds 
about the North Pole, viz : from right to left, and that all circular 
gales in the southern hemisphere revolve in the opposite direction, as 
does the whirl about the South Pole. 

How can there be any connection between the rotary motion of 
the wind about the Pole and the rotary motion of it in a gale caused 
here by local agents ? 

So far, we see how the atmosphere moves ; but the atmosphere, 
like every other department in the economy of nature, has its offices 
to perform ; and they are many. I have already alluded to some of 
them. But I only propose in this paper to consider some of the 
meteorological agencies which, in the grand design of creation, have 
been assigned to this wonderful machine. 

To distribute moisture over the surface of the earth, and to temper 
the climate of different latitudes, are two of the great offices assigned 
by their Creator to the ocean and the air. 

When the north-east and the south-east trades meet and produce 
the Equatorial calms of the Atlantic, the air by this time is heavUy 
laden with moisture — ^for, in each hemisphere it has traveUed obliquely 
over a large space of ocean. The two winds meet here with opposing 
forces so nicely balanced that they neutralize each other, and a calm 
is the consequence ; and, as one is pressing from the north and the 
Other from the south, upon the atmosphere over this calm region, 
each with the whole amount of force that sets it in motion, we ought 
to have in this calm region an accumulation of atmosphere equal to 
the sum of those forces. Now, if we haA barometrical determinA' 
lions accurately made in the region of these calms, we should proba- 
bly obtain an expression, in horse power, if you please, of the whole 
amount of force exerted by the sun in keeping up this system of 
atmospherical drculation — for it is the heat of the sun which causes 


the winds to blow and the waters to flow ; at least, it is the chief 
$ource of their motive power. 

The air of the Equatorial calm? being charged with moisture, is 
thus compressed, and has no room for escape, but in the upward 
direction. In this direction it reaches a cooler region ; a portion of 
its vapor is condensed, and comes down in the shape of rain. There- 
fore it is, that under these calms we have a region of constant preci- 
l itation. 

Old sailors tell us of such dead calms of long continuance here, of 
such heavy and constant rains, that they have scooped up fresh water 
from the surface of the sea. 

The conditions to which this air is exposed here under the Equator 
are probably not such as to cause it to precipitate all the moisture 
that it has taken up in its long sweep across the waters. 

Let us see what becomes of the rest — for nature, in her economy, 
permits nothmg to be taken away from this earth which is not to be 
restored to it again in some form, and at some time or other. 

Consider the great rivers — the Amazon and the Mississippi, for 
example — we see them day afber day, and year after year, discharging 
an immense volume of water into the ocean. 

"All the rivers run into the sea, yet the sea is not fnll." Ecc. i, 7. 

Where do the waters so discharged go, and where do they come 

They come from their sources you will say. But whence are their 
sources supplied ? — for, unless what the fountain sends forth be 
returned to it again, it will fail and be dry. 

We see simply, in the waters that are discharged by these rivers, 
the amount by which the precipitation exceeds the evaporation 
throughout the whole extent of valley drained by them — and by 
precipitation I mean the total amount of water that falls or is depo- 
sited, whether as dew, rain, hail or snow.* 

The springs of these rivers are supplied from the rains of heaven, 
and these rains are formed of vapours whicli are taken up from the 
sea, that " it be not full,'' and carried up to the mountains through 
the air. 

" Note the place whence the rivers come, hither they return again," 
is a dictum of the wise man. 

Behold now the waters of the Amazon, of the Mississippi, the St» 
Lawrence, and all the great rivers of America, Europe and ABi% 
lifted up by the atmosphere, and flowing in invisible streams throughL 


the air back to their sources, and that through channels so regular, 
certain, and well defined, that the quantity taken up one year with 
the other is nearly the same, for that is the quantity which we see 
running down to the ocean through these rivers, and the quantity 
dischai^ed bnnually by each is, as &r as we can judge, as constant. 

We now begin to see what a powerful machine is the atmosphere, 
and though it is apparently so capricious and wayward in its move* 
ments, here is evidence of order and arrangement which we must 
admit, and proof which we cannot deny, that it performs this mighty 
office with regularity and certainty, and is therefore as obedient to 
law as the steam engine to the will of its builder. 

It too is an engine. The South Seas themselves in all their vast 
extent are the boiler for it, and the northern hemisphere is its con* 

The proportion between the land and the water in the northern 
hemisphere is very different from the proportion between them in the 
southern. In the northern hemisphere, the land and water are nearly 
equally divided. In the southern, there is about ten times more 
water than land. All the great rivers of the world are in the norths 
em hemisphere, where there is less ocean to supply them. Whence 
then are their sources replenished ? Those of the Amazon are jsup- 
plied with rains from the Equatorial calms. That river runs £., its 
branches come from the north and south ; it is always the rainy 
season on one side or the other of it, consequently it is a river with- 
out periodic stages. It is always at high water mark. For one half 
of the year its northern tributaries are flooded, and its southern for 
the other half. It discharges under the line, and as its tributaries 
oome from both hemispheres, it cannot be said to belong exclusively 
to either. It is supplied with water from the Atlantic Ocean. 

Taking the Amazon therefore out of the count, the Rio de la Plata 
is the only great river of the southern hemisphere. 

There is no large river in New Holland. The South Sea Islands 
give rise to none, nor is there one worth naming in South Africa. 

The great rivers of North America and North Africa, and all the 
rivers of Europe and Asia, lie wholly within the northern hemis- 
phere. How is it tihen, considering that the evaporating surface lies 
mainly in the southern hemisphere, how is it, I say, that we should 
have the evaporation to take place in one hemisphere and the con- 
densation in the other 1 The total amount of rain which falls in the 
northern hemisphere is much greater than that which falls in the 


southern. The annual amount of rain in the North Temperate Zone 
is half as much again as that of the South Temperate. 

How is it then that this vapour gets from the southern into the 
northern hemispheres, and comes with such regularity that our rivers 
never go dry and our springs fail not ? It is hecause of the beauti> 
^ operations of this grand machine — ^the atmosphere. It is exqui* 
sitely and wonderftiUy counterpoised. Late in the fall, throughout 
the winter, and in early spring, the Sun is pouring his rays with 
greatest intensity down upon the seas of the southern hemisphere^ 
and this powerful engine j^hich we are contemplating is pumping up 
the water there for our rivers with the greatest activity. At this 
time, the mean temperature of the entire southern hemisphere is 
about 10^ higher than the northern. 

The heat which this heavy evaporation absorbs becomes latent, 
and with the moisture is carried through the upper regions of the at- 
mosphere, until it reaches our climates. Here the vapour is formed 
into clouds, condensed and precipitated. The heat which held this 
water in the state of vapour is set free, it becomes sensible heat, 
and it is that which contributes so much to temper our winter di*- 
mate. It clouds up in winter, turns warm, and we say we are going 
to have falling weather. That is because the process of condensa> 
tion has already commenced, though no rain or snow may have &1- 
len, and we feel this southern heat that has been set free in the pro- 

While evaporation is going on with most activity in the southern 
hemisphere, precipitation is taking place to the greatest extent here; 
the fall spell, the winter rains, and the " long season in May," are 
familiar times of wet weather to us all. These are the seasons at 
which we look for high water, and expect our '^ inland seas" to be in 
good navigable order. 

The vapour comes through the upper regions of the atmosphere, 
and is probably condensed here not many day% after it is taken up 
there. Suppose it to travel with the velocity of the trade winds, at 
the rate of twenty miles the hour, it will only take it about twenty 
days to reach us from the middle of the southern hemisphere. 

We caftnot ascend into the upper regions of the atmosphere to see 
what is going on there ; but we have such a train of well established 
facts derived from observation here below, that reason mounting on 
them, boldly soars aloft, and confidently asserts knowledge of what 
is going on there. 


When we see and feel, as in the trade wind region we do day after 
day the year round, the wind blowing as steadily from the Poles to- 
wards the Equator, as the Mississippi runs down to the Gulf, we are 
forced to the conclusion that as much air, precisely as much as we see 
here coming from towards the Poles, and going towards the Equator, 
has to go from the Equator back towards the Poles. If this were 
not so, there would be an exhaustion, and this wonderful engine that 
we are considering would break down, for there would finally be a 
vacuum about the Poles with a tremendous atmospherical accumu- 
lation about the Equator. 

Recurring to the figure of 8 illustration, and considering both 
hemispheres, we shall see that the atmosphere, like the string of a 
musical instrument, has its nodes or points of rest. These nodes 
serve as escape valves to the winds. In the Equatorial calms, 
both the N. E. and S. E. trades have run their course on the surface, 
they are going up to blow as upper currents, and therefore the mo- 
tion of the air here in these calms, could it be seen and measured, 
would be upwards ; and for the same reason, when the two upper 
currents meet in the region of Horse Latitudes, the motion of the air 
is downward, for after passing this node, each upper current becomes 
a surface wind, and each is going whence the other came.* 

Important operations are carried on, and purposes grand in the 
system of terrestrial economy are subserved by these atmospheric 

This singular fact has been brought out by the investigations which 
we are conducting at the Observatory with regard to the winds. Our 
investigations in the Atlantic, for we have not carried them much 
further, show us that the S. E. trade wind region is much larger 
than the N. E. — ^I speak of its extent over the Atlantic Ocean only. 

The S. E. trades often push themselves up to lO'' or 15*^ of north 
latitude, whereas the N. E. trade winds seldom get south of the 

Seeing that there is so much more room for evaporation in the 
southern than in the northern hemisphere, and that there is so muck 
more precipitation on this than on the other side of the Equator, we 

* If this interchange of atmoflphere did not take place betw€»en the two hemis- 
pheres, how would a proper mixture of the air be preserved. In the North there is 
much more land, and many more plants and animals to corrupt it than in the 
South, and unless the interchange did take place, there would be reason to infer a 
difference as to atmospherical purity in the two hemispheres. 



are led to one of two oonjeetures ; first, that aqueous vapour in its 
invisible state can permeate the atmosphere ; in other words, It can 
flow through the air in separate or independent currents of its own, 
like some of the gases. In this case, we must further conjecture the 
seat of some power unknown, which would always drive this va- 
pour from the southern over into the northern hemisphere. We 
know of no suti force in nature, and in this age men would scarcely 
receive such a conjecture. 

Abandoning this therefore, we are next led to the second conjec- 
ture, which is, that the motion of the air in the general system of 
circulation is not such as represented in the figure already described; 
but that the N. E. trade winds for instance, when they reach the 
Equatorial calms, instead of turning back towards the north, as is 
there supposed, keep on towards the south, and the S. E. trade 
winds make the tour north. In this case, the course of them, as de- 
scribed by Solomon, would be thus : 


If tins be a true lepresentatioii o{ tiie oonrse of the winds, ve 
shall see that the S. £. trade winds would entor the northern hemis- 
phere, and bear into it all their moisture, except that which is oomr 
pressed in the region of Equatorial calms. 

lliat the Zone over which the S. £. trade winds blow is of an 
area greater than that over which the N. £. trade winds blow, does 
not go to show b J any means that the body of air flowing frmn Uie 
South Pole to the Equator, is greater than that which comes from 
ibe North Pole to meet it. 

All that is necessary to establish a p^eet equilibrium betweoi 
the two winds — and no doubt they are in nature truly counter- 
poised — is to suppose thai they extend to the same height, and blow 
with equal Telocity. In this case, we can readily perceive how the 
whole amount of air which the N. £L trades daily bear across the 
parallel of 10^ N. for instance, is equal to the whole amount wfaidt 
the South East trades bear across the parallel of 10^ S. in the same 

I have no observations bearing directly upon this point ; but we 
know by whom this mighty atmospherical engine was built, and that 
his works are never out of order ; they are always in the proper 
proportions and in exact counterpoise. 

The South Sea then supplies mainly the water for this engine, 
while the northern hemisphere condenses it ; we should therefore 
have more rain in the northern hemisphere — the rivers tell us that 
on our ade of the Equator, the great water courses of the globe and 
half the fresh water in the world, is found in our northern and this 

Ihe rain gauge ftlls us also the same story. The yearly average 
of rain in the North Temperate Zone is, according to Johnsoh, 37 
inches. He gives but 26 in the South Temperate. 

Moisture is never extracted from the air by subjecting it from a 
low to a higher temperature, but the reverse. Thus all that air which 
comes loaded with moisture from the other hemisphere, and is home 
into this by the S. £. trade winds, travels in the upper regions of 
the atmosphere until it reaches the horse latitudes — here it becomes 
the sar&ce wind that travels to the northward and eastward. As it 
goes north it grows cooler, and the process of condensation com- 

* The peculiar clouds of the trade winds are fonned between die two cnneots 
of air. They are fonned of Yaponr condensed fit>m the upper coneot, and ewpo- 


We may now Wkea it to the wet sponge, and the decarease of tern- 
perature to the hand that squeezes that sponge. Finally, all the 
moisture that a dew point of zero, and even &r below, can extract, 
is parted with, and this air then commences "to return according to 
his circuits" as dry atmosphere ; it does not come in contact with 
the surface of the water, but remains isolated in the upper regions 
from all sources of vapour, until it crosses the " Horse Latitudes^" 
and commences to blow the trades. Here, it is as the dry sponge, 
taking up and evaporating fresh water from the sea with great avi- 
dity. By the time these winds reach the Equatorial calms, they 
are saturated with moisture ; thus loaded, they return to refresh the 
earth with rain, to cover the hills with snow, and to supply the foun- 
tains of our great rivers with water. 

By reasoning in this manner, we are led to the conclusion that our 
rivers are supplied with their waters principally from the trade wind 
regions — the northern rivers from the southern trades, and the 
southern rivers from the northern trade winds. 

If this be so, then the saltest portion of the sea should be in the 
trade wind regions, where the water for all the rivers is evaporated — 
and there the saltest portions are found.. 

Dr. RuscHKNBBROER, of the Navy, on his late voyage to India, 
was kind enough to conduct a series of observations on the specific 
gravity of sea water. 

In about the parallel of 17® N. and S. — the middle of the trade 
wind regions — ^he found the heaviest water. Though so warm, the 
water here was heavier than the cold water to the south of the Cape 
of Good Hope. 

In summing up the evidence in favor of this view of the general 
system of atmospherical circulation, it rjpmains to be shown how it 
is, if the view be correct^ there should be smaller rivers, or less rain 
in the southern hemisphere. 

The N. E. trade winds returning from the polar regions where the 
moisture has been compressed out of them, remain, as we have seen, 
dry winds until they cross the Zone of " Horse Latitudes,'- and are 
felt on the surface as the N. E. trades. About two-thirds of them 
only can there blow over the ocean, the rest blow over the land, 

rated as it descends, by the lower and dry current forms from the Poles. It is the 
Same phenomenon up there which is so often observed here below ; when a cool 
and dry current of air, meets a warm and wet one, an evolution of vapour or fog 


over Asia, Africa and North America, where there is but compara 
tively a small portion of evaporating surface exposed to them. 

The Zone of these trades extends from about 25^ North to tlie 
Equator. Now if we examine the globe to see how much of this 
Zone is land and how much water, we shall find, commencing with 
Qiina and coming over Asia, the broad part of Africa, and so on 
across this Continent to the Pacific, land enough to fill up as nearly, 
or it may be, just one-third of it, equal to 120'^ of longitude. 

Two-thirds then only of the N. E. trade winds are fully chained 
with moisture, and only two-thirds of the rain of the northern hem- 
isphere falls in the southern. 

This point of view is one which is not capable of any more than 
the rudest approximations, for the greater extent of S. E. trades on 
one side, and of high mountains on the other, must each of necessity 
have its effect. 

These calm and trade wind regions or belts, move up and down 
the earth in latitude nearly a thousand miles. In Jiily and August, 
the Zone of Equatorial calms is found between 7*^ N. and 12® N., in 
March and April, between lats. 5® S. and 2*^ N. 

With this fact and the ch^rt of the N. E. trades before us, it is 
easy to perceive why it is that we have a rainy season in Oregon, a 
rainy and a dry season in California, another at Panama, two at Bo- 
gota, none in Peru, and one in Chili. 

In Oregon, it rains every month, but more in the winter months. 

The winter there is the summer of the southern hemisphere, when 
this steam engine is working with the greatest pressure. The va- 
pour that is taken up by the S. E. trades, is borne along over the 
region of N. E. trades to lat. 35*^ or 40*^, where it descends and ap- 
pears on the surface with the S. W. winds of those latitudes. Driving 
upon the highlands of the Continent, this vapour is condensed and 
precipitated during this part of the year almost in constant showers. 

In the winter, the belt of the " Horse Latitudes" in this hemis- 
phere approaches the Equator. This whole system of Zones, viz. : 
trades, calms and westerly winds, follows the Sun. 

The S, W. winds crowding down at this season to the south, 
reach as far down as the lower part of California ; and the same 
cause which made it rain in Oregon, now makes it rain in Califomia. 
As the Sun returns to the North, he brings the belt of " Horse Lati- 
tudes" and N. E. trades along with him ; and now at places where 
six months before, the S. W. winds were the prevailing winds, the 


N. E. trades are now found to blow. This is the case in the latitude 
of California. These N. E. trades then come across the Mountains, 
the Sierra Nevada and others, and leave all their moisture, if thej 
have any, there. Consequently, when they descend into the valleys 
beyond, they are cooled down. They have not vapour enough left 
in them to make rain of, and we have there a cool and rainless sea- 
son, until the Sun returns to the South, and drags back after him his 
train of trade wind zones and belts of calms. 

Panama is in the region of Equatorial calms. This belt of calmsj, 
as may be seen by the charts, travels during the year back and forth 
over about 17*^ of latitude, coming furthest North in summer, where 
it tarries for several months, and then returns so as to reach its ex- 
treme Southern latitude sometime in March or April. Where these 
calms are, it is always raining, and the chart shows that they hang 
over the latitude of Panama from June to November ; consequently, 
from June to November is the rainy season. The rest of the year 
Panama is in the region of the N. E. trades, which, before they ar- 
rive there, have to cross the Mountains of the Isthmus, on the cool 
tops of which they deposite their moisture, and leave Panama rain- 
less and pleasant, until the Sun returns North with* the belt ot 
Equatorial calms after him. They push the belt of N. E. trades 
farther to the North, occupy a part of the winter zone and refresh it 
with summer rains. 

This belt of calms moves over more than double of its breadth, 
and the entire motion from South to North is accomplished gen&> 
rally in two months, May and June. 

Take the parallel of 4° N. for instance : during these two months^ 
the entire belt of calms crosses this parallel and then leaves it in 
the region of the S. E. trades. During these two months, it was 
pouring down rain on that parallel. After the calm belt passed it, 
the rains held up, and the people in that latitude have no more of it 
till the fall, when the belt of calms recrosses the parallel on its way 
to the South. By examining the " Trade Wind Chart," it may be 
seen what the latitudes are that have two rainy seasons, 4uid that 
Bogota is within the bi-rainy latitudes. ^ 

The Coast of Peru is within the region of perpetual S. E. trade 
winds on the verge of this great boUer, and yet it never rains there. 
The reason is plain and the charts make it obvious. 

The S. E. trade winds, which in fact come from about E. S. E., 
strike the water on the Coast of Africa. They blow obliquely across 


Commencing at this parallel in the North Pacific, the N. E. trades 
blow thence and reach the region of Equatorial calms, near the Caro- 
line Islands. Here they rise up ; but, instead of pursuing the same 
course in the upper stratum of winds, they, in consequence of the 
rotation of the earth, are made to take a S. E. course. They keep 
in this upper stratum until they reach the "Horse Latitudes" of the 
South, between the parallels of SC and 40*^ ; after which, they 
become the N. W. winds of the southern hemisphere, which corres- 
pond to the S. W. of the northern. Continuing on to the S. E., they 
now are the surface winds, and after blowing as such over a consider- 
able tract of ocean, they become as the wet sponge, and are abruptly 
intercepted by the Andes of Patagonia, whose cold summit com- 
presses them, and with its low dew-point squeezes the water out of 
them. Capt. Kino found the astonishing fall of water here of nearly 
13 feet (151 inches) in 41 days. 

We ought to expect a corresponding rainy region to be found to 
the north of Oregon ; but there the mountains are not so high, the 
obstruction to the S. W. winds is not so abrupt, the highlands are 
&rther from the coast, and the air which these winds carry in their 
circulation to that part of the coast, though it be as heavily charged 
with moisture as at Patagonia, has a greater extent of country over 
which to deposite its rain, and consequently the fall to the square 
inch will not be as great. 

In like manner we should be enabled to say in what part of the 
world the most equable climates are to be found. They are to be 
found near the Equatorial calms, where the N. E. and S. E. trades 
meet fresh from the ocean. 

Such a place cannot be found in the Equatorial regions of Eastern 
Africa, because there is but a small evaporating surface for the N. E. 
trades in the Indian Ocean. Moreover, the course of these winds is 
interrupted there by other and local causes, which convert them into 

It cannot be found in Western Africa, because the trade winds 
approach that part of the continent from the land, and not from the 
water, and in unequally heated currents. But it is to be found in the 
valley of the Amazon, where those winds meet after having traversed 
the Tropics all the way across the Atlantic By such long contact 
with an equally heated ocean, the air becomes of a uniform tempera- 

The temperature here is so equal that it is considered to be an 

144 pftocnmsfl or na ammucau usooutios 

extraordinary and remarkable change in the weather when the mean 
temperature of any day rariea as much as 3° from the mean of the 
whole year. 

Here, too, i» where takes place the great condensation of the watM 
which ha« been token up from the Atlantic by the two systems of 
trade winds. 

I have never seen the records of a nun gauge kept in the valley of 
the Amazon ; but this river itself is gauge enough to show that the 
fall of rMn there is immense. A rain gauge kept on the verge of it 
gives the annual fall at 23 feet. In Washington it is about 3 — in 
ChaHeston 4. 

The mean annual fall of rain on the entire sur&ce of the earth is 
estimated at about 5 feet. 

To evaporate water enough from the ocean to cover the earth 5 
feet deep with rain ; to transport it from one zone to another ; and 
to precipitate it in the right places, at suitable times, and m the 
proportions due, is the office of the grand atmospherical machine. 
This water is evaporated prindpally from the Torrid Zone. Suppos- 
ing it all to come thence, we shall have, encircling the earth, a belt 
of ocean 3000 miles in breadth, from which this atmosphere evapo- 
rates a layer of water annually 16 feet in depth. And to hoist up as 
high as the clouds, and lower down agiun, all the water in a lake 16 
feet deep, and 3000 miles broad and 24,000 long, is the yearly bua- 
ness of this invisible machinery. "What a powerful en^e is the 
atmosphere ! 

We see that light is beginning to break upon us — for we now b^;in 
to perceive why it is that the proportions between the land and water 
were made as we find them in nature. If there had been more water 
and lees land, we should have had more rain, and vicevena, and then 
climates would have been different from what they now are, and the 
inhabitants, neither animal nor vegetable, would have been as they 
are. And as they are, that wise B^ng, who, in his kind Providence, 
■n watdies over and regards the things of this world that he takes 

>wledge of the sparrow's &11, and numbers the very hairs of our 

id, doubtless deigned them to be. 

;n some parts of the Earth the precipitation is greater than the 

kpontion ; thus, the amount of water borne down by every river 

it runs into the aea may be con^dered as the excess of the precii»- 

ion ov«r the evaporaticoi that takes place in the valley druned fa; 

POB TBM AMYAMtmMmn 09 twiu a w j, 145 

In other parts of the Earth the evaporation and {Mredpitatkm are 
exactly equal, as in those inland basins such as that in which the city 
of Mexico, the Caspian Sea, etc. etc., are situated ; which basins have 
no ocean drainage. 

If more rain fell in the valley of the Caspian than is evaporated 
from it, that sea would finally get full and overflow the whole of that 
great basin. If less fell than is evaporated, then that sea would dry 
up, and plants and animals would all perish there for the want of water. 

In the sheets of water which we find distributed over that and 
every other inhabitable inland basin, we see reservoirs or evaporating 
surfaces just sufiicient for the supply of that degree of moisture 
which is best adapted to the well-being of the plants and animals that 
people such basins. 

In other parts of the earth still we find places, as the Desert of 
Sahara, in which neither evaporation nor precipitation takes place, 
and in which we find neither plant nor animal. 

In contemplating the system of terrestrial adaptations, I have come 
to regard the great deserts cf the earth, as the Astronomer does the 
counterpoises to his instrument — ^though they be mere dead weights, 
they are, nevertheless, necessary to make the balance complete, the 
adjustments perfect They give ease to the motions, stability to the 
performance, and accuracy to the work of his telescope. 

Wherever I turn to contemplate the works of nature, I am struck 
with the admirable system of counterpoises, with the beauty and 
nicety with which every department is poised by the others ; things 
and principles are meted out in directions the most opposite, but in 
proportions so exactly balanced and nicely adjusted, that results the 
most harmonious are produced. 

It is by the action of opposite and compensating forces that the 
earth is kept in its orbit, and the stars are held suspended in the 
azure vault of heaven, and these forces are so exquisitely adjusted, 
that at the end of a thousand years, the earth, the sun and moon^ 
and every star is found to return to its proper place at the pro- 
per moment. 

Nay, Philosophers tell us, when the little snow drop, which in our 
garden walks we may now see, raising its beautiful head to remind 
us that spring is at hand, was created, that the whole mass of the 
earth from pole to pole, and from circumference to centre, was taken 
into aoeount and weighed, that the proper degree of strength might 
be given even to this little plant. 

140 FROcnomioB of ths aiixbioah assooiatioh 

Botanists tell us that the oonstitation of this plant is sadi as to 
require that at a certain stage of its growth, the stalk should bend 
and the flower should bow its head, that an operation should take 
place, which is necessary, in order that the herb should produce seed 
after its kind, and that after this its vegetable health requires that it 
should lift its head again and stand erect. Now if the mass of the 
earth had been greater or less, the force of gravity would have been 
different ; the strength of fibre in the snow drop would have been too 
much or too little; the plant could not bow or raise its head at the 
right time ; fecundation could not take place, and its family would 
have become extinct with the first individual, because it could not 
have reproduced itself 

Now if we see such perfect adaptation in the case of one of the 
smallest flowers of the field, how much more may we not expect it 
in the atmosphere, upon the right adjustment of which depends not 
oalj the life of that plant, but the well being of every individual 
that is found in the entire vegetable and animal kingdoms of the 

When the East blinds blow for a little while, they bring us air 
saturated with moisture from the Gulf Stream, and we complain of 
the sultry, oppressive, heavy atmosphere, the invalid grows worse, 
and the well man feels ill, because when he takes this atmosphere 
into his lungs, it is already so charged with moisture, that it cannot 
take up and carry off that which encumbers his lungs, and which 
nature has caused to be deposited there, that this atmosphere may 
take up and carry off. At other times the air is dry, he feels that it 
is conveying off matter from the lungs too &st, he realizes the idea 
that it is consuming him, and he calls it parching. 

Therefore, in considering the general laws of atmospherical circu- 
lation, in order to get at the due to them, I have felt myself con- 
strained to set out with the belief^ that if the atmosphere had had a 
greater or less capacity for moisture, or if the proportion of land 
and. water had been different — ^if the earth, air and water, had not 
been in exact counterpoise — the whole arrangement of the Animal 
and Vegetable Kingdoms would have varied from its present state. 
But God chose to make them what they are ; for this purpose it 
was necessary to establish the proportions between the land and 
water and the desert just as they are, and to make the capacity of 
die air to circulate heat and moisture just what it is, and to have it 
to do all its work in obedience to law, and in subservience to order. 


Else why are we told that '*He measured the waters m the hollow 
of his liand, and comprehended the dust in a measure, and weighed 
the mountains in scales and the hills in the balance?" Why but 
that, when he spanned the heavens, he might mete out the atmos- 
phere in exact proportions to all the rest, and impart to it those 
properties and powers which it was necessary for it to have, in order 
that it might properly perform all those offices and duties for which 
he designed it 1 I have not the time, and if I had the time, I have 
not the heart so to abuse the patience of those around me, as I 
should do, by attemtpinglo take up the currents of the ocean, and to 
tell of the discoveries to which our system of investigation has led 
us with regard to those great agents in the terrestrial economy. 

Harmonious in their action, they are obedient to law, and subject 
to order in all their movements ; when we consult them in their 
courses, they teach us lessons — ^the investigations into that broad 
spreading circle of phenomena connected with the winds and the 
waves of the sea, are second^ to none for the good which they do and 
the profit which they give. 

The Astronomer sees the hand of God in the sky, but the right 
minded Mariner who looks aloft as he ponders these things, hears 
His voice in every wave of the sea, and feels His presence in every 
breeze that blows. 

Prof. A. D. Baohb, Superintendent of the Coast Survey, then 
gave a popular account of the Measurement of the Base Line on 
Edisto Island, of the apparatus used, of the difficulties attending 
such operations, and the means employed in overcoming the difficul- 
ties experienced. 

[The article of Prof. C. U. Shepard is inserted here, as the proof 
was not received in time to insert the article in its proper place.] 

Account of three new American Meteorites^ mth observations upon ths 
geographical distribution of such bodies generally ; by Charles Up- 
BAM Shepard. 

1. Meteoric Stone of Richland^ South- Carolina. 

This stone was put into my hands a year ago, by Dr. Robert W. 
GiBBBS, of Columbia, to whom it had been presented by Mrs. Enoush, 


on whose estate (situated 20 miles east ot Columbia,) it bad been seen 
to fall during a violent thunder storm in the summer of 1846. The 
ne^o who witnessed its descent, ran immediately to the spot ; and after 
digging to the depth of eighteen inches, picked it up and brought it to 
his mistress, with the remarkable expression, that it was a '4ump of sotid 

It differs from all meteoric stones hitherto observed, in figure as well 
as composition. It is nearly round, and almost perfectly smooth, hav- 
ing only very slight elevations and depressions over its surface. Its 
diameter is two and a-half inches, and its weight six and a-half ounces. 

On being sHt through the centre by the lapidary, it is observed to 
present an uniform yellowish white color, much resembling that of the 
common fire-brick. A few minute grains of transparent quartz are 
visible throughout its substance, which is otherwise perfectly homo- 
geneous. It is close grained and rather firm in texture. The crust is 
light reddish brown, and shining, without, but darker within; and is 
thicker than in most meteoric stones. The thickness, however, is uni- 
form, and it is firmly adherent to the mass. In small fragments, it is 
attractable by the magnet. 

Sp. Gr. —2.32. 

Before the mouth-blowpipe, it is infusible : but by means of the oxy- 
hydrogen instrument, it melts into a dark blackish green glass, more 
vitreous and less brown than the crust 

When reduced to powder, it presented a peculiar light pearl-gray 
color. Decomposed by fusion with carbonate of soda, it afforded 

Silica, 80.420 

Alumina, 15.680 

Protox. Iron, 2.618 

Magnesia, 0.700 

Lime, 0.500 

FVom which it is apparent that this stone, though coming within my 
trachytic order, stands at a wide remove from any meteoric substance 
heretofore described. No examination was made with a view to detect 
soda or potassa, both of which are probably present in minute traces. 

It is probable that the compound of which this stone is principally 
composed, constitutes a mineral species hitherto unknown. 


2. Meteoric Stone of Caharras Co., N^orth- Carolina, 

This stone fell at quarter past three p. m., on the 31st of October, 
1849. The place of fall was upon the estate of Mr. H. Bost, which 
is situated in the southwest corner of the county, eighteen or twenty 
miles from Concord, its shiretown, twenty-two miles east from Char- 
lotte, and fifteen miles from Monroe, the county seat of Union. An 
account of the principal circumstances attending the fall of the mass 
has been given by Dr. J. H. Gibbon, of the United States Branch Mint, 
at Charlotte, which appeared in a late number of the American Journal 
of Science. Additional particulars of the same phenomenon have been 
afforded by the same gentleman, which were published in the National 
Intelligencer (No. 11.532). As abstracts from both these sources have 
been made by several papers in different sections of the country, it will 
be unnecessary to take up time here with further particulars on this 
part of the subject.* A few additional facts communicated to me by 
Dr. William D. Eersh, of this State, and by Dr. E. H. Andrews, of 
Charlotte, may be communicated on a future occasion. 

For an opportunity of describing this stone, I am indebted to the 
kind offices of Drs. Gibbon and Andrews, of Charlotte, both of whom 
repaired immediately to the place of fall, and secured for me the refusal 
of the mass. It was soon afterwards purchased by Dr. Andrews and 
transmitted to me here, thus affording me the pleasure of exhibiting it 
to the Association almost precisely in the condition in which it was 

The present weight is 18 J pounds, — ^it having been reduced one 
pound by the abstraction of two or three fragments by those who saw 
it prior to the visit of Drs. Gibbon and Andrews. 

Its general figure may be judged of by the annexed drawing. 

* One circurastanee, however, may here be noticed in Dr. Gibbons narrative of 
die various deseriptions of the report noiade by the explosion of the meteor. It is 
die comparison of an old hunter who was abroad engaged in fishing. He remarked 
that " it was like the reports of three pieces of heavy artillery, followed by the j 

rumbling of the base-drum." Now this account resembles that given of a stone 
which fell Dec. 25, 1846, in the environs of Mindenthal, (near Munich) Germany, j 

when after twenty reports similar to that produced by a distant cannonade, the noise 
changed to a rumbling, like that of a kettle-drum. A single stone was seen to fall 
and bury itself to a small depth in the soil of a garden. In size, weight and shape, 
the fallen mass strikingly resembled that now under ooaaideration. 


T^e ahiq>e reminds one tiie moet forcdbty of a human foot inclosed in 
an india-rubber overshoe. It nevertheless exhibits several tolerably 
distinct planes, giving lise to a low, irregular, four-sided pyramid, trun- 
cated at the summit, and having for a base, a somewhat rounded, 
undnlatiug surface. (The angle marked A presents the fractured sur- 
fiwe.) Its greatest length is 10| inches, its height Bi, and ili> breadth 
6] inches. The ndes present the indentations, and the angles the Uunt 
teminations, which are so conunon in these bodies. 

The crust is tlun, bUck and strongly coherent, having a smooth 
■ur&ee, with exception of minute projections occasioned by metallic 
grains. In point of lustre it is quite dull. Minut« portions of y^ 
lowish clay and fibres of lignin (the former from the soil into whit^ it 
fell and the latter from the tree agiunst which it struck) are still vinble 
upon portions of the surface. 

An attempt to break the mass for obtaining a fru^h view of th« 
interior, revealed a remarkable difference between this and moet mete- 
oric stones. It required repeated strong blows wiUi a heavy hammer, ta 
detach a fragment of one pound weight; and the fracture was at last 
^bded only where a fissure had before been observed, and where a sort 
ot natnral jrant, with perfectly glazed, plumbaginous surfaoee had 
exitted. In force of cohesion, it fully equals most trappean rocks. 

Its ground color is of a dark bluish gray, stained with fine rust 
points. It is mottled with rounded grains and crystab of a lighter 
wOond mineral, rendering the mass, when closely viewed, sub-porphy- 
rilio. Though rich in nickehferous iron and pyrites, these ingredienta 
can scarcely be discovered upon a fractured sur&ce, owing to the fine- 
ness with which they are interspersed. 


It is the first sample bebnging to the trappean order of stonesi 
whidi has been described in the United States, and approximates most 
closely to the rare stone of Tabor, in Bohemia, which fell July 3, 1753. 
It is strongly magnetic Its sp. gr. varies from 3.60 to 3.66. 
Tho compo^tion of the stone, as a whole, was foimd to be 
Nickeliferous iron (with traces of chromium), 6.320 

Magnetic Pyrites, 3.807 

Silica, 66.168 

Protoxide of iron, 18.108 

Magnesia, 10.406 

Almnina, . * 1.797 

Traces of Ume, soda and potassa, with loss, 3.394 

The earthy portion of the meteor is made up of two (possibly three) 
distinct minerals. One of these is olivinoid, to the amount of one-third 
or one-half the entire mass. It is in rounded or sub-angular graina, 
like one variety of leucite in certain lavas. Its color is grayish white, 
with a tinge of lavender blue. The size of the concretions vary from 
that of a mustard seed to that of a pepper com. The other mineral is 
dark bluish gray. It is fine granular, approaching compact ; and con- 
stitutes the paste or cement which holds the alumina and metallic in- 
gredients together. It is impossible to separate it for investigation, by 
itself, and to determine whether it is a described mineral, or new. It 
seems more f^robable that it is the latter, and that it belongs to the 
feldspar genus. It certainly differs from howardite and from anorthite 
by very marked properties. 

An additional interest attaches to the stone, inasmuch as its fall was 
succeeded by other meteoric displays, in the same region, of a very 
striking character. A very brilliant meteor was seen at Tampa, Florida, 
by Lieut Meade of the Topographical Engineers, at 8 o^clock in the 
evening of Oct. 31st; while Col. A. G. Summer, of Lexington, South- 
Carolina, communicated the following account to the Weekly South- 
Carolinian, published at Columbia, Nov. 15, 1849. '^On Thursday, the 
1st of November, 1849, early in the morning explosions resembling 
distant artillery, were heard by various persons, which were mistaken 
for blasting explosions. These continued until the afternoon, when 
these fire-winged messengers of the stars became visible to the naked 



•ye. One exploded about two miles northeast from my reaidenoe with 
a stunning noise which shook the surrounding bills, and in its down- 
waid transit, emitted a clear phosphorescent light, leaving a distinct line 
illuminated ia its course. Another, five miles northward, was observed 
winging ita oourse in the same direction, at quite a leisure rate, hori- 
zontally with the earth, and being spent, exploded with noise and 
smoke. It appeared to be a revolving ball of white flame. At 4 o'clock, 
p. m., I was walking in a field at Pomaria, when a startling explosion 
took place, apparently three hundred yards only, distant from me. The 
sound was fuller than the loudest report of artilleiy would be at that 
distance, and sensibly shook the earth. Similar distances were observed 
in the upper part of Newberry district, thirty miles north of this place, 
and throughout our whole section, they were visible to many of the 
most respectable citizens. I have not had leisure to examine any of the 
locations where the explosions took place, to determine whether there 
have been specific mineral deposites. At night, there was a beautiful 
display of those *^ fiery tears from the skies," commonly denominated 
shooting stars. 

^ The sky was perfectly dear during the entire day, and a brilliant blue 
was observable, even to the horizon. The sunset was most brilliant 
orimson, and about 10 o'clock, P. M., the flash of the northern lights 
was plainly visible. The weather since lias been warm to an intolerable 
degree, and we are now in the midst of a most charming Indian 

If we adopt the views of Humboldt, concerning the origin of these 
bodies, the phenomena under consideration would seem to present us 
with a stream of falling stars and aereolites, differing in its period of 
apparition by about twelve days from that of the first November stream, 
whose time has been put down by Humboldt from the I2th to the 14tjli 
of November — the time of the nearest previous asteroid ring being 
August the 10th. 

3. Meteoric Iron of Ruffle Mowxiain^ Newberry ^ South* Carolina. 

We owe the discovery of the present highly interesting iron-mass, to 
Dr. Thomas Wells, (formerly of Columbia, S. C, but now a resident 
of New-Haven, Ck>nn.) From several communications, with which I 
have been favored from this gentleman, I learn that he has but reeently 
oome into possession of the mass, and that he is stall unacquainted with 
iba partieulars of its discovery. It would appear, however, that it had 

FOR TSK AHVAimtaiDn or boikmck. 168 

be^ Hntil very recently, lj»g in a neglected state, near tlie haase of a 
farmer, in the vkanitj^of the spot where it was first found. 

I am indebted to Dr. Wells for a drawing of the maas, a re^weaenta- 
lion of which is here subjoined : 

TTie fignre is irr^^ular imd ovoidal, being tnincate at both extremi- 
tiee. Its greatest length is 81 1-2 inches, while its breadth is 29 3-4 
inches. It weighed 117 pounds. Judging from the specimen I have 
seen, it would appear that the man was coated with a black crust, 
Uiicker than ia usual in these bodies ; and accordingly the specific gravity 
varies somewhat, as the fragments by which it was determined compre- 
hended more or less of the coatdng. Two of these gave 5.97 and 6.80, 
while portions seemingly free from the oxidated crust gave 7,01 and 

I found the following compositjon in a specimen of very clean turnings, 
oht^ned in making a division of the mass by Dr. W. 

Iron, 96.000 

NiAel 8.121 ' 



The etched surface upon a large slab of the mas«, which has been &?- 
mrded for the in^iet^on of the Meeting, by Dr. Wblls, shows it to ba 
hil^y eryBtalhne thmnghaut, to b^ng to my seedons dC eloiely wyt^ 

154 PROOKnxhros 07 tbb ammkicmm jumooultiov 

tMine, alhtfed, h4)moffeHe(ms, fnaikaiU$ irmis^ It ezbilntB m etched pat- 
tern, which, on the whole, more nearlj resembl^ those of the Texas^ 
and the Carthage, Tenn^ metecMic iron ; although it presents pecnliari- 
ties distinguishing it from those, and from every other iron I have yet 
seen. It has^ for instance, over much of its smface, the rather broad 
raised spaces situated between the sharp raised lines, (which spaces are 
usually dull and black,) completely filled with closely aggr^ated shin- 
ing polygonal areas, resembling the top figures at the extremities of 
basaltic colunms. A few narrow gashes, each about one inch long, of 
a briUiant pindi-beck, red pyrites appear near one extremily of the 
slab. The peculiar colour of this sulphuret, and the manner in whidi 
it resists the action of acids, lead to the suspicion that it may prove to 
be an hitherto unobserved species. 

The present, therefore, is the second well-authenticated discovery of 
Meteoric Iron within the State of South-Carolina ; and both masses 
have been brought to light within the space of a single year. The other 
mass referred to is that of Chester District, of which I presented a brief 
notice in tl^ American Journal of Science, soon after the discovery 'was 
made. A fuller account of the same is reserved for a future occasion. 
Suffice it to remark here, that there is no such resemblance between the 
two, as to evince that they came from the same meteor, although they 
evidently belong to the same section and order of Meteoric Irons. 

4. On the falling of Meteorites over a limited zone, or area of the 
Earth^e eurface» 

From the numerous (Uscoveries of these bodies in the States of North- 
Carolina, Tennessee, and South-Carolina, within the last few years, and 
from the many accounts of meteoric explosions, (as yet unattended by 
the finding of precipitated matter) over the same region, it occurred to 
me that there might be a concentration in the depositions of such bodies, 
not only on this continent, but possibly elsewhere. This idea led me to 
jot down upon a map of the world, the authentic falls of meteorites, 
which have occurred since the commencement of this century, as the 
best mode of bringing the conjecture to a test. The result of this in- 
vestigation seems to establish the existence of such a zone or re^on, 
over which meteoric falls are more frequent than elsewhere. The facts 
collated are these. Out of fourteen depositions of meteoric matter on 
the American Continent, (during the period above referred to,) thirteen 
(or 92.8 p. c.) have taken place between the parallels of 33^ and 44^ 


Noiih latitude, while the remaining, or 1-1 4th, oocorred at Macao, in the 
Province of the Rio Clrande del Norte, in Brazil Here then is pres^it- 
ed a distribution at onoe exceedingly unequal Their deposition forms 
an imperfect stream, whose extreme length is 11^ of latitude, and whose 
extreme length in longitude is about 25^. The line of most frequent 
deposit cuts obliquely across the 37th parallel of latitude, and manifests 
a partial tendency of conformation to the line of the Atlantic coast 

To show that this area has actually been the scene of most freiquent 
meteoric risitatioBs within this period; and that the inference here made 
is not founded upon the fallacy, that contiguofu regions have been as 
often struck by the fragments of meteors without, however, having been 
reported to science, it is only necessary to observe that the actual falls 
have been cited to us from districts often the most sparsely settled, 
while the more thickly settied States afford us no examples of meteors 
whatever. For instance, South-<])arolina has two falls, North-Carolina 
two, Tennessee two, Georgia, Missouri, Iowa, Virginia, Maryland, each 
one; while Pennsylvania, New-Jersey, New- York, Massachusetts, Ver- 
mont, New-Hampshire, and the entire British Provinces, M>t a single 

Taming now to the eastern world, where the surface is rather more 
than treble that of the American Ccmtinent, we have, for the same pe- 
riod, fifty-five falls, or rather more than four times the American number, 
which agrees pretty nearly with what we should anticipate, after making 
due allowance for the more thickly settled state of its occupation-^it 
being just, perhaps, to leave the unexplored regions in the old and new 
world to balance each other. 

Of these fifty-five falls, fifty (or 90.9 p. c.) have taken place over the 
comparatively narrow area comprehended between 41^ and 56^ North 
Latitude ; and all but five, (i. e. 45 of them,) between parallels 43 and 
64, a zone of the same breadth as that found to be the American region 
f(Mr similar falls. Of the remaining &ve (i. e. between 50 and 55,) three 
fell in Northern India, one in Finland, in latitude 60^. and the fifth at 
the Cape of Good Hope, in latitude 35^ o\ 

The longitudinal extent of the meteoric region is here much greater 
than on the opposite side of the Atlantic It extends from the sea-coast 
on the West, inland, and obliquely Northward for upwards of 60^; — ^the 
greatest number of falls, however, being spread over the first 30^ of 
longitude, and the greatest concentration occurring between the paral- 
lels of 46 and 47 (of latitude.) 
But it may be necessary to defend this distribution of meteor falls also 


from the suspicion of the error which might arise from a d^sctive re- 
porting of facts, owing to supposed sparseness of population, and wan- 
of intelligence, over regions where no meteoric deposites are cited. On 
this point, suffice it to say, that while in the North of Spain, in ev^ 
portion of France, in Sardinia, Lombardy, Bavaria, Bohemia, Silesia, 
they are most abundant, they are almost wholy wanting in Portugal, 
centre and southern Spain, southern Italy, Sicily and Ilungary, as well 
as in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Northern Russia. 

Additional evidence bearing on this point, is afforded by the localities 
of the meteoric iron itiasses, whose time of fall is wholly b^ond our 
knowledge, their chemical composition being such as to impart to them 
flo high a degree of persistence, that they may in particular instances, 
be as old as any of the solid portions of the earth's sur&ce. 

The old world has presented us with fourteen localities of these 
masses, eleven of which are situated within the meteoric zone, and mostly 
between the parallels of 46 and 52 of North Latitude. The new 
world has already thirty-two such discoveries, whereof twenty-two are 
eomprised j^thin its meteoric region, and the most of them are found 
near the latitude parallel of 36. 

Nor can we fail to notice another curious fact connected with the in- 
verted proportions, as regards the nimiber of meteoric &Us of recent 
date, and of irons, whose time of fall is unknown, for the two continents. 
The European has, for a given period of time, m<»re than four times the 
number of the former, and less than half that of the latter. What do 
we recognize here, but a fresh proof of the erroneous use of the word 
new, if understood in a geological sense, as applied to our portion of the 
earth ? The medals we are now examining add their testimony to the 
abundant evidence already possessed by the geologist, that, after all, 
we are the true denizens of the old-world. 

To the question which very naturally suggests itself in this place, do 
these zones upon the opposite sides of the Atlantic connect by a wateiy 
region, subject to similar deposites from the atmosphere ? we are whoUy 
without evidence. 

If then it appears that these aerial strangers alight upon our earth in 
such great preponderance over limited areas, can we help admitting that 
there presides over their descent some great law, or in other words, that 
these falls take place in accordance with some fixed plan. The present 
stage of our knowledge may, indeed, be inadequate to develope what 
that plan actuallly is ; but when we see so marked an approach by the 
courses of our meteoric regions, to the isothermal parallels for the same 


zones, and again, an observable coincidence between the trends of the 
meteoric regions, and the isodynamic lines, we are strongly tempted to 
refer the forces of greatest activity concerned in the phenomenon, to an 
union of thermal and magnetic action, although it is, at the same time, 
possible that more powerful local attractions in the surfaces concerned, 
than exist elsewhere, may also exert some influences over the deposition 
of these singular bodies. 

The Association adjourned, to meet to-morrow, at 10, A. M., at 
the Hall of the Court of Equity. 

LEWIS B. 6IBBES, Secretary. 

168 PROCxsDiNoe of ths amkrioak association 


Fifth Day, Saturday, March 16, 1850. 

Thb President took the Chair at half-past 10, A. M. 

Minutes of the last Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following gentlemen, nominated by the Standing Committee, 
were elected members of the Association : Rev. C. Wallack, Jamks 
Lamb, Esq., Henrt Ravenbl, Esq., Hon. Wm. Aikbn, Benjamin 
Gardin, Esq., Charleston, S. C. ; Dr. George Hay, Barnwell, S. C; 
D. F. Jamison, Esq., Orangebui^, S. C; Dr. Townbend, John's 
Island, S. C; R. F. W. Allston, Esq., Georgetown, S. C; Dr. 

Newman, Huntsville, Ala. ; Malone, Esq., Athens, Ga. ; Dr. 

Joseph Leconte, I. C. Plant, Esq., Macon, Ga. ; Rev. Wm. Hall, 
Dr. Hamilton, Dr. J. C. Nott, Mobile, Ala. ; Dr. T. P. Screven, 

Savannah, Ga. ; Lane, Esq., Milledgeville, Ga. ; Whit- 

TicH, Esq.,*^Peniield, Ga. ; Lieut. Riell, U. S. N. 

Standing Committee reported the following resolutions : 

1st. Resolved, That the President of the meeting be requested to 
present to the Association, at their next meeting, at New-Haven, an 
account of the proceedings of the Charleston meeting. 

2d. Resolved, That the Secretaries be requested to communicate to 
the members appointed on Committees a notice of their appointment, 
and to request that they will send their reports before the 1st of 
June to the President of the Charleston meeting. 

3d. Resolved, That the Secretaries be requested to prepare a circu- 
lar to members who have made communications at the present meet- 
ing, informing them that the rules of the Association require each 
one to furnish an abstract of his paper, or to transmit the communi- 
cation itself, and asking that these be forwarded to one of the Secre- 
taries within three weeks. 

The Committee also recommended a recess at 1 o'clock. 

Prof. TuoMEY was then called to the Chair, and the first paper was 

On the Structure of ike Bones of Siren laeertina, by St. Julibn 

Ravenbl, M.D., of Charleston, S. C, 

[Not received.] 


On a new species of Afenobranckvs, from South- Carolina; by Prof. 

Lewis Rc Gibbeb. 

This new species, Menobranchus punctatus, is smaller and 
more slender in its proportions than the two species already known, 
Jf, macuJatus and M, lateralis^ of a nearly uniform dark olive co- 
lour above, with numerous small orange or yellowish coloured dots, 
irregularly distributed over the whole surface ; beneath pale flesh 
colour. At distant intervals over the upper surface, there are large 
ill-defined spots, of darker colour than the rest of the surface, but not 
at all approaching the distinctness of the spots in M, Maxiukbtus ; 
there are no latei^l vittaB as in M. lateralis. The first individual ob- 
tained was discovered by Mr. Auoctstus Shoolbred, on the South 
Santee River, a few miles from its mouth, in Feb., 1848^ and sent 
to me. Soon after, two more were sent to me from the same 
neighborhood, by Dr. A. Gadsden ; and after the lapse of a week or 
two, five more were transmitted to me by Dr. Shoolbred. This 
gentlenuin sent me two more this spring, making ten in all that 
have been seen. None were obtained in 1849. They were all dis- 
covered in cleaning rice-field ditches, which is done once a year, at 
the close of the winter. 

A drawing of this species was exhibited, which will probably be 
published with a more detailed description ; drawings of the other 
two species were exhibited also, to illustrate the peculiarities of 

On the Recent Squalida of the Coast of South-Carolina^ and a Oata- 
logue of the Recent and Fossil Echinoderms of Carolina; by Ed- 
mund Ravenel, M.D., of Charleston^ S. C. 

The interest excited by the numerous teeth of Squalidse found in 
the tertiary strata of South-Carolina, induced me to collect the teeth 
of the species of this family, now inhabiting the sea of our imme- 
diate neighborhood. 

The collection which I have made, and which is now presented to 
the meeting, embraces 

3 species (perhaps 4,) of Carcharias. 

2 « " Zygoena. 

1 " " Galeocerdo. 

1 *' ** Lamna. 

1 " " OxyAina. 


cm ram MnmoAir ^moauinov 


These Fish were all taken in liie Harbour of Qwrieatoii — the 
Galeocerdo, and one species of Carcharias, are fiom the Cabtnet of 
Mr. Holmes. 

It is probable that several of these are undescribed, and the spe- 
dmeus now on the table, will be placed in the hands of Prof. Aoab- 
siz for his examination. 

The value of local Catalogues in determiniog the Geogri^phical 
distribution of species has been frequently alluded to at this meeting, 
and I therefore beg leave to lay before you a Catalogue of Uie Be- 
cent and Fossil Echinide of South-Carolina, prepared in 1848, and 
recently illustrated by figures of several of the new species. 

This embraces the following spedes : 

1. £. punctulatus. 

«< fichinuB punctulatuB." — ^Lax. 

Recent So. Carolina. 
My Cabinet. 
S. E. infulatus. 

" Echinus infulatus." — Morton. 

Fossil Eocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


3. C. prostratm. 

'' Scntelia gibbosa." — RAvsireL. 
Recent ; in deep water ; off the Coast 
of So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


4. S. Pileus Sinensis. — Ravensl. 

Fossil. Eocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 

5. S. crustuloides^— MoBTON. 

Fossil. Eocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 

ENCOPE.— Aouss. 
6.. E. macrophora. 

" Sctttella macrophora." — Ray. 

Fossil. Miocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 

MELLITA.— Klein. 

7. Mquinquefora. 

« Scatella qninqoefora."— Lam. 

Recent. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 

8. M. ampla. — ^Holmu. 

New. FossU. Post PUocene. So. 


9. M. Caroliniana. 

*' Scutella Caroliniana." — Rav. 
Fossil. Miocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


10. P. crucifer. 

" Nucleolites crucifer." — Morton. 

FosbbI. Ek>ceae. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 

11. P. rugosus. 

New. Fossil. Eoeene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet 


12. A. GothicQs. 

New. Fossil. Miocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


13. B. poriieniB. 

New. Fossil. Miocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 

14. B. rimulatus. 

New. Fossil. Eocene. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


Pericosmus. — Aoass. 

15. P. epatiosus. 

New. Fossil. Miocefie. So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


16. S. atropos. 
" Spatangus atropos."— -Lam. 

Recent So. Ca. 
My Cabinet. 


In addition to these, I have recently received a species of Saga- 
num, from the Eocene, near the Santee Canal, the single specimen 
being small, I will delay its description, with the hope of obtaining 

These fossils being rare, are laid upon the table for examination. 

Tbb next paper was a communication 

On the action of the Heat of the Sun upon the Earthy by Samusl 

Wbbbbr, £sq., of Charlestown^ N. H, 

Pbof. Tuom XT then read a paper, 

On the Cretaceoue Formation of Alabama and the Artesian Welle in 

that StaU. 

No abstract of which has been received. 

On the Bemtofnee of Timber and other solids ; by H. Hauft, Esq., 

Sttpt, Fenn. jB. F, Harrisburg, Fa, 

Calculations for the purpose of determining the relation which the 
dimensions of timt>ers should bear to the weights which they are re- 
quired to sustain, are based upon several hypotheses, which experience 
has proved to be correct within the usual practical limits. The most 
important of these are — 

1. The fibres are susceptible of compression and extension. 

2. The degree of extension or compression, will be directly as the "" 
force by which it is produced. 

3. So long as the elasticity remains unimpaired, or so long as the 
fibres may be considered as perfectly elastic, the force required to pro- 
duce a given extension, will be equal to that which produces an equal 
compression, and the resistance to these forces will be likewise equal. 

These hypotheses will be applied to the most simple ca^e of flexure, 
which is that of determining the relations between an applied weight 
and the dimensions of a timber, which are necessary to sustain it when 
one end is fixed and the other unsupported. 



v&ooammm 9v nm^^manaoMM jmqc»«tion 

Lei A TepMBont a bem^ifeed at A 
C and loaded at C with a waglit (W^) 


j the weight of the beam itself being €<»r 

j the present disregarded* 

! The substance of the beam is sap- 
: posed to be entirely uniform throughout^ 
wO and composed of an assemblage of par 
rallel fibres, all equally strong. 
lh» effiset of' the weight W is to stretch the fibres at- A «id cofBOspmA 
those at B. From these pointB to the interior of the beam the forces 
gradually diminish, and there must exist some point of the line A B, 
at which no horizontal force is exerted, and which sufifeis ndther exten- 
sion or compression. 

To thatUnieof the loogitudinal section, whidi pasBeathroughstinB 
point parallel to the direction of die beam AC, we have given the 
name of the neutral axis. 

The position of the neutral axis wiU vary with the foim :of tha mate- 
rial, with the degree of uniformity which it possesses, and with the 
amount of fiexure caused by tJke load, but in a beam that is stniigiit 
grained, rectangular^ without knots or flaws of any kind, and not sub- 
jected to the action of a weight sufficient to impair its elasticity, it is 
ioiteet to ammne the pesitaon of the- neutnl axis in the middle of the 

Admitting then thati within: the^ usual practicid EflntsitissufficieBtiy 
eorrect to as«mieithe>poBEtion iof tiw nestrai axis in tiie oentr^^rf the 
beam, it is evident . that from this line in the directions # A 'and n B, 
the pressure on the ^bfes williaorease cfoeet^y as the ^ystimee, ind if 

the pressure upon any fibre at the distance - be designated by R, the 

pressure'upon any other fibre may be determined from a simple pro-; 
portion. The total pressure upon the line n B can then be directly 
determined, for since the pressure upon any individual fibre . is as the 
distance from the neutral axis, it would be represented by the perpen- 

dimdnr erected upon Ihe base^ of a right angled triai^e^ whose' alti- 

titude is R, and the whole pressure would n 

be represented by the area of this triangle, W r"^^ 

^ R ltd BR 




by — 


Hid fievefdi foi^es wbidi act upon thd beam may be oonraderdd as 
taidisg eitlier to cause, or to prerent motion around ihe point n, and 
ibeir ^feets must be asoeitained by comparing the products of their m- 
tensities by the distances from the point of rotation at whidi they act 

If^ for example, a weight should be applied at the extremity of a 
lever, its <^eGt would not be represented by ihe weight let alone, bat by 
ihe weight multiplied by the distance from the fulcrum at which it 
acts ; this product is called the moment of the force, and it is ^ese 
soK>ments in reference to the axis or point of rotation, and not simply 
the absolute intenaties of the forces, that must be compared in deter- 
mining tlie conditions of eqmUbrium in any gygtem. 

Now the weight of any body may be supposed concentrated at its 
centre of gravity; and, in general, any number of parallel forces may 
be r«[daeed by it single force called the resultant In the present caae, 
the pressure of thetrkuigle vlack refwes^ts the sum of all the forces 
upon the fibres of the lower half ot 1^ joint A B^ will be the same as 
if a single fovce equal to its «rea were applied in the direction of a line 
pAssing through its centre of gravity. 

As die e^tre «»f gravity^ otomtiteoi pandkl forces of a triangle, is 
m a tee drawn from the vertex to the middle of the base, and at a dis- 
tance from the latter equal to onetthird the length oi the bisecting line, 
it follows that the leverage of the triangle of pressure will be two- 

tiiirds of n B, or -y^; this multiplied by the area of the triangle i. e. 

by the resistii^ focoe along n B^ which we have found to be 

equal to will give for the moment of this force in refer^ce to 

tiie point n, -_ x — ^-^^' 

..But. the part n A x)pposes a xesistance to ^xt^i^n, which is equal to 
that which the part n B opposes to compression, and as the moments 
of their forces are equal, the whole moment of the redsting forces will 

be expressed by — — 

The weight which is represented by w^ acts with a leverage equal to 

l^ the length of the beam and its moment will therefore be wl. 

The equation of equilibrium will therefore be k'Z= - 

In this equation the breadth of the beam has been regarded as unity, 


but if it be represented by 6, the equation will become wl= * 



The yahie of Ji must be determined by experiment, and -mW depend 
upon the kind of material. In general it has been taken too high, and 
as a consequence, the dimensions of timbers deduced from the formula 
which contained it have been too smalL A timber should never be 
subjected to a strain sufficient to destroy its elasticity ; and experiments 
to determine the value of H, should be continued for a considerable 
length of time. A weight which even after several months would 
produce any permanent flexure, should be regarded as too great 

When a beam is used as part of a frame, the value of R must he 
such that only a very slight degree of flexure will take place ; the limit 
assigned by Trbdoold being one fortieth of an inch for every foot in 
length, or 1-480 of /. 

In the formula which has been obtained, it will be observed that the 
principle consists in representing the pressure upon a section of a beam 
by the volume or weight of a mathematical solid of determinate form, 
resting upon the section as a base, and the resultant of which is a line 
passing through the centre of gravity of the solid perpendicular to thk 
plane x)f the section. By multiplying the force of this resultant by its 
distance from the neutral axis, we obtain its moment, which, in the case 
of equilibrium, must be equated with the product of the weight iiito its 
distance from the section of strain or fracture. 

The same principle applies to any form of beam whatever, provided 
it be such that its volume and centre of gravity can be estimated, and 
by using it, the same formulae can be obtained geometrically, that have 
been deduced from the summation of algebraic series, by Trsdgold. 

The solid of pressure in the case of a simple rectangular beam is a 
wedge ; in a cylinder, it will be an ungula, having a semi-circular #aae, 
and semi-elliptical section, but the principle is general and applicable to 
every case. 

A novel and extremely simple method is also used for determining 
the relative deflections of beams which consisted in representing these 
deflexions by the areas of plain curves. It was discovered that the de- 
flection at any point of a beam could be represented by the ordinate of 
a curve, generally a common or cubic parabola, and the whole deflection 
equal to the sum of these ordinates, would be represented relatively by 
the area of a portion of the curve. An application of this principle is 
given in the following problems. 


1. To find the deflection of a rectangular beam, supported in the mid- 
dle, and uniformly loaded over its length. 

Let ^ 5 be the beam, C the n fr -j R 

falcrum,a; = distance of any per- ^ 
pendicular, y from the ex- 
tfehiity B,w = weight -^ 

When the weight is at the C x 

extremity, the strain upon any section will be as the distance ^, and will 
be represented by wx^ but the deflection will be not only as the strain, 
but as the distance from B^ hence it will be proportional U>wx\or 
Mt y z= wx\\i is evident that y corresponds to the abscissa of a com- 
mon parabola, whose ordinate is a?, and the whole deflection equal to 

the sum of these abscissas, will be represented by the area B Cn = — 

rectangle B Cn R, 

When the weight is uniformly distributed, the strain upon any sec- 
tion will be proportional to the weight, and distance from B. ^ 

Let X be any distance, then I \ w \\ x \ — = weight on the part 

d?, and — . « = moment to which the strain or extension of the fibres will 

be proportioned ; the deflection being as the strain and distance from B 
will be^ ^'. If then p = !f.a?', we perceive that p is the absds- 

aa of a parabola of which x is the ordinate. The area B C r = 

of rectangle B C r a = ^ B C nR =:the deflection. Hence the 


deflection in the two cases will be as — . to— , or as 8 to 3*. 

3 8 

* Tbedgold gives the proportion in this case as 3 to 5. (See Treatise on Cast 

Iron, page 141.) To test the question by direct experiment, the writer suspended a 

flexible strip of wood, 7 feet long, two uniform chains of the same length were laid 

iq>on the top, and the deflection found to be _ of an inch, one chain was thea 


8iiq;)ended at each end, and the deflection became ii of an inch, but 4 : 11 :: 3 : 8^» 

. 8 

a result much nearer the calculated proportion than was expected with the appara-^ 
tns used. 

IM PBOOKBDnroe ov tbs AmuoAir ifMiociAnow 

2. The deflecli<m of a beam Buppoited at the ends, ftiid i^ 
irill be to the deflection of the Bame beam, when the whole weight la. 
on the centre, as 5 to 8. 

When the whole weight ^p .— ^^ 

is at the centre, let to rep- j y\ 

resent the weight upon one t'SSZl 'S^^^^J/^s ^ 
of the supports ; the strain . i ^^^.-^^P*^^ \o _^^ 

upon any section at the ^n ' ' * 

distance x will be represented by too;, and the d^ection, as in the lasfe 
proposition, by vto?. It will, therefore, as in the last case, ooRespcMid 
to the abscissa of a common parabola, of which x is. the ordinate* The: 
sum of these deflections, or the whole deflection, will be proportional tot 
the area ^^C= one-third of rectangle Aotnc. 

Let the beam be now supposed to be uniformly loaded, and let the 
deflection due to the extension of the fibres at the distance x be ascer- 
tained. It is evident that the weight upon 'the points of support will 
be the same as formerly. The reaction of the point A may be repre- 
sente^by a force equal to w acting upwards ; its leverage at the dia- 
tance x will be wx^ and the deflection due to it wt^^ as before ; but the 
eflSsct of the uniformly distributed load upon the part x diminishes this 
deflection, since it acts in the opposite direction ; its effect will be 

T-x*, and the whole deflection will therefore be (wt? ^ — sr*). The ez- 

pression —4x? is represented by the area A^ Vc, which we have already 

shown to be one-eighth of rectangle A n. Hence the deflections will 
be as i— i I i, or as 5 to 8 ; which agrees with the results obtained by 
other methods. 

3. To determine the extension of the fibres when a beam is supported 
at the ends and loaded in the middle. 

A beam supported at the ends and loaded in the middle is in the 
same condition as a beam resting upon a fulcrum in the middle and 
loaded with equal weights at the ends. 

Let ^= one-half the whole ^ » 

length, i0=:the weight on A^ \ ^^^^** | 

«=distance of any section j7"''" — f ^ j '^ , 

from -4, e=the maximum '^ "^ ^ "oTL w^ * 

eitension, whidi will be at C, 

w^L-nm AmrAiraMiam op Mpowowi Iff 

Nov, m the extension at aa^ distenoe is in projpoition^te ibs 
rteain^ it will evidently be in pioportion to x, and we have^ therelbfei 


I I xlle I —. = extension at the distance x. But the deflection be- 

ing as the extension and distance directly, and inveisdy as the depOBi^ 

it will be as — .-. = _.. Call this expression y; we have, there? 
I a la 

fore, y = 7-=^= the equation of a parabola, of which x is the ordinate 

and y the abscissa. 

The whole deflection hehag equal to the sum of tiiese abscissas, will 

^ 1 1 e el^ 

be represented by the area A CI)= r rectangle AD = o ^ • (73 ^) = Q* 

The deflection of the part BO being equal to that of AC^ the whda 
deflection will be ? !?. Whence ^^ ^ (<^eflection) ^ ^ 

, By observing the deflection produced by a given weight, and substi* 
tuting its value in the above expression, the value of e can be ascer* 
tained. In cast iron, when the weight is 15,300 lbs. per square, it is 
found to be ^ of an inch for a length of one indu 

On the Carcinohgical Collections of the United States, and an enuk 
meration of species contained in them, with notes on the most 
remarkable, and descriptions of new species ; by Prof. Lxwns Ri 

I HAYS in the last few years visited the Cabinets of Natural Hisw 
tory belonging to the Societies devoted to that Science in the citka 
of Boston, New- York and Philadelphia, and examined the oolleo* 
tions of Crustacea contained in them. With permission of the re- 
spective Societies, 1 labelled their specimens in a mode nearly uni* 
form in all, and furnished each with a Catalogue of those belonging 
to their Cabinet. I now propose embodying these separate enume- 
rations in one to be laid before the Association, enlarging it in some 
measure by the enumeration of those in my own Cabinet, (the 
largest I believe at the South,) adding notes on the most remarkable 
species among those already described, and short descriptions of 
those that are new, chiefly from my own collection* These new spe- 
cies will be indicated by an * prefixed, and species already described, 
I have found it necessary to change, by a f . I shall thus endeavour 


IQ present a view of the present state of the Cardnological Golleo- 
lions of the United States, and of the &cilities that may be enjoyed 
l^y those studying this department of Natural History, due allow- 
ance being made for additions that may be made to collections 
where the proprietors are tolerably active, and losses that may be 
sustained by the ravages of insects, and by accidents that will occur 
in handling specimens so fragile as those of Crustacea. The Cabi- 
net of the Boston Society of Natural History, was examined in 
1845 and 1846 ; that of the Lyceum of Natural History, of New- 
York, in 1846 and 1847 ; that of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
of Philadelphia, in 1847; the enumeration may be considered as 
representing the state of my own Cabinet at the end of 1849. These 
collections will be referred to as the Boston, New- York, Philadelphia 
and Charleston Cabinets. The American Museum in New-York has 
a small collection of Crustacea in good condition, and on examining 
it I found several species not contained in the other Cabinets; I re- 
gret therefore not having inquired for collections in public museums 
in other cities. These unique specimens of the American Museum 
are included in the following enumeration. In the rooms of the 
Patent Office at Washington, the collection of Crustacea of the Ex- 
ploring Expedition are exposed to public view, but I sought no op- 
portunity of studying them more closely, not r^arding them as 
open to the public for that purpose. There were several already 
known species among them, which, however, I then saw for the first 
time, and should be glad of an opportunity to examine the collection 
at some future day. Only the Podophthalmian Crustacea af e in- 
eluded in the following Catalogue, not only because I have paid less 
attention to the lower orders, but also because few of them are 
found in the collections. 

To increase the value of this Catalogue, I will add the localities 
Ibr the species proceeding from the Coast or Territory of the United 
States, distinguishing these localities by italics. 







Lkptopodia baoittaria, Lbach — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. From 
the West Indies and the Gulf of Mexico, not yet positively known 
to inhabit the Coast of the United States. 

Lbftopodia oalcarata, Say — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. Of Sat's 
original specimen, all that remains is the stomachal region of the 
shell, with the eyes and rostrum attached. This was found in 
Charleston Harbour- I do not know that a second specimen has ever 
been found. 

Stbkorhtnohus phalanoium, Lamk — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Stbnorhynchub longirostris, M. Edw. — Charleston Cabinet, 

Inachus SCORPIO. M. Edw. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Inachus thoraoious, Roux — Boston and Qiarlestpn Cabinet. 


LiBiNiA cANAucuLATA, Sat — ^Bostou, Now-York, Philadelphia, and 
Qiarleston Cabinets. From the Coast of the United States^ from 
Massachusetts to South-Carolina. In a collection of Crustacea brought 
me from Key West, by Dr. Wurdbmann, there are no specimens of 
this crab, nor do I recollect seeing it in other collections from the same 

LiBiNiA dubia, M. Edw. — Boston, New- York, Philadelphia, and 
Charleston Cabinets. From the Coast of the United States — Key 
West to Charleston. I do not know how much further North it 
ranges, nor whether the specimens in each of the northern ooUectiona 
proceeded from the adjacent coast. Db Kay regards this as the 
young of the preceding, but I regard them for the present, at least, 
as distinct species, although it must be acknowledged no absolute 
character can be indicated by which they may at once be separated. 

FBOonwiiras or vsmMtamnoMs AMoeumoir 

Hie distinctive characters are rather comparative than absolute, Ja 
dubia is more pyrilorm and less circular in on^ne, as viewed from 
above, than the preceding ; the central region of its shell is less 
depressed, and the spiniform tubercles fewer ; or more accurately, 
what may be termed the spines proper, on the sur&ce of the shell 
and around its lateral edges, are, with few exceptions, precisely the 
same in number and position in both species, but Z. canalieukUa 
has in addition, a number of spiniform tubercles, appearing like unde- 
veloped spines, distributed between the spines proper. These 
differences are not those of sex, for I have males and females of both 
forms ; nor of locality, for 1 have both forms from Giarleston Har- 
bour ; nor of i^e, at least, not of size merely, as my spedmens exhibit 
ail raises of sizes for eadi set of characters. Possibly^, the intemid ana« 
tomlcal details would furnish some distinctive character. L. dubia 
appears to be the most prevalent form along the southern coast. 

LiBiNiA AFFims, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. This so 
dosely resembles L, dubia, that if from the Atlantic coast, I should 
not regard it as diff^^nt, but as it comes from Upper California^ I 
cannot venture to pronounce them the same. 

HsRBSTiA pARviFRONS, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. From 
Western Coast of America; 

Pisa tbtraodon, Lsaoh — ^Boston, New-York, and Charleston Cab- 
nets. From the Coast of Europe; 

Pisa bicorna. Boston, New-York, and Charleston Cabinets. 
My specimens are from Key West, where it appears to be common. 
Shell triangular, tuberculous, branchial regions developed, and each 
armed with a single moderate spine ; rostrum of moderate l^ogth, 
bems diverging from their base; terminal tooth of the basilar seg* 
ment of the external antennae prominent, surpassing in length the 
anterior angle of the upper orbitar edge ; ocular peduncles not oloselj 
sheathed by the orbits but capable of being folded back ; lower orbi- 
tar edge with a notch, which is smaller in proportion than in the P. 
Utraodcn ; claws or first pair of feet, in the male with large hand, 
finger and thumb, when closed, touching by their sharp finely serra- 
ted edg^ at their tips, and leaving a wide opening between them 
elsewhere, as in P, tetraodim) body covered moderately with a 
brownish down, hands bare, and marked with reddish brown spots^ 
(in the dry specimen,) on a light ground. In the female, first pair of 
feet but little laiger than the rest, finger and thumb In clo^iigv fitting 
nearly accurately* This speeies I r^ard as the Perie^ra bic4m%a43ik 

Miun EDWABDSiy aad have so labelled it in aomeof the odleelioiis, 
but it Mrill be ae«ii by the deamption that it rieally belongs to the 
genua Pisa. 

*Pi8A MuraoA — Charleston Cabinet. This small species warn 
found in Cfuxrleslon Harbor^ off White Point Battery. Lengthiof 
rostrum, reckoned from interantennary spine, one-fourth the length 
of the rest of the body, horns united for the lower third, diverging 
afterwards ; body triangular, without tubercle or spine, of moderatdly 
uniform conyexity, stomachal region somewhat developed; eyes 
capable of folding back, the orbit incomplete, especiidly on Uie low«e 
side, no spine on the upper orbitan edge ; basilar segment of the external 
antennsB narrow, without any spine, and the antennse visible on eaek 
side of the rostrum when viewed from above. LMigthO.45 of an ineb 
from tip of rostrum to posterior edge of carapace. Female with e^p& 

LiBSA FissiBosTRA, Sat — Bostou, Philadelphia and Charlestos 
Cabinets. Nartkem coast of United States^ as &r south as Long 
Island, according to DeKat. Although the form of the rostrum 
forbids our retaining this species in the genus ZtMa, I continue to use 
Sat's original name, as I have had no opportunity of comparing it 
with Byas eoarctata from the British coast, with which some of our 
naturalists regard it as identical. It appears to me to resemble 
HycLS aranettj judging from Herbst^s figure. The first segment of 
the moveable portion of the external anteanee is very slightly en* 
laired externally. 

*Hta8 aouleata — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. Brought 
firoffi Key West by Dr. Wurdemann, from Florida by Mr. Bartlxtt. 
Body sub-rotund, convex, somewhat tuberculous above in the female, 
smooth and polished in the only male specimen I have, lateral edges 
armed with five spines on each side, not including the angles of the 
orbits, the middle spine and the one anterior to it sometimes appear- 
ing united, forming a bifurcated spine, particularly in the male; 
orbits directed forwards and outwards, with a spine at outer angle^ 
two at the iimer, one above and one below, an obsolete fissure at the 
upper edge of the orbit, and another at the lower ; first moveable 
segment of the external antenns flat, broad, extended into a wing 
externally, which also projects forwards for half the length of the 
next segment, and both segments clothed with cilise ; rostrum bifid, 
short, barely the length of the first segment of the external antenne ; 
third segment of the external jaw*feet dilated outward at the external 
angle. Length one inch. 

172 PROonnniroB or tbb amkrioam absooiatioh 

Chorinus hbros, Lsaoh — ^New-York, Philadelphia and Charleston 
Cabinets. From Key West The specimens I have labelled thus 
in the collections are nearly uniform in size and appearance, agree in 
the main with the description of M. EnwAans, but are little more 
than an inch in length, with the first pair of feet scarcely reaching to 
tip of rostrum. They may be the young, or it is possible that they 
form a distinct species ; but 1 will not venture to decide without a 
further supply of specimens. 

MiTHRAx 8PIN08IS8IMUS, M. Edw. — ^PhUadelphia and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. My specimens are from Key West, An individual 
in the Philadelphia collection is of unusual size. Shell 7 inches in 
length, as many in breadth, and 3 inches thick ; hand and finger 7 
inches long, 2 1-2 broad ; whole length of one of the first pair of feet 
13 inches. Several fine specimens of this crab in the American 
Museum, New-York. 

MiTHRAx vBRRUoosus, M. Edw. — ^Boston and Charleston Cabi- 
nets. My specimens are from Key West. 

MiTHRAx HispiDus, M. Edw. — ^Boston, New-York, Philadelphia and 
Qiarleston Cabinets. Those in the Boston Cabinet were brought 
from Florida by Mr. Bartlett; the one in my own (a young 
male) was taken off Charleston Harbor. 

MiTHRAX souLPTUs, M. Edw. — ^Bostou, Ncw-York, Philadelphia 
and Charleston Cabinets. My specimens arefrof{i Key West, where 
it appears to be very common. 

Maia vbrrucosa, M. Edw. — ^Boston, New-York and Charleston 

MicipPA cRisTATA, Leagh — Ncw-York Cabinet. This species is 
rare in our cabinets, there being only a single shell at New-York. 

Perioera cornuta, M. Edw. — ^Boston, Philadelphia and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. There is also a specimen in the American Museum, 
New-York. That in my Cabinet came from Key West. The sped- 
men in the Philadelphia Cabinet has been described by Dr. Ran- 
dall (Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., vol. viii, p. 108,) as new under the name 
of ChoriniM armatus ; his description will be found to apply to /V- 
rieera cornuta in every respect, and a reference to the figure given in 
Hughes' Natural History of Barbadoes, pi. 25, fig. 3, or to Hbrbst, 
pi. 59, fig. 6, will complete the proof that it has been already de- 

Perioera trispinosa, M. Edw. — ^Charleston Cabinet. Fi'om Key 
Westy brought by Dr. Wurdemann. 


AcAifTHONTx LVNULATDS, M. Edw. — ^Boston attd Charleston Cabi- 

Epialtus bitubbrculatus, M. Edw. — Charleston Cabinet. Brought 
from E^ West by Prof. W. H. Harybt, and agrees perfectly with 
MiLNB Edwards^ description and figure of individuals said to come 
from the coast of Chili. 

Epialtus productus, Randall — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Epialtus nuttalii, Randall — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. Fh}m Upper 
California, A single shell of E, Nuitalii is in the New-York Cabinet. 
These two species appear to be new and well-marked. 

3. tribb parthbnopiana. 

Lambrus lonoihanub, Lbach — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Lambrus anoulifrons, M. Edw. — New-York Cabinet. 
> Lambrus echinatus, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet and Ameri- 
can Museum, New-York. 

Lambrus meditbrranbus, Roux — ^Boston and New-York Cabinets. 

Parthbnopb horrida, Lbaoh — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Crtptopodia fornioata, M. Edw. — ^Boston Cabinet. Shell in 
outline triangular, with the lateral angles much rounded, and the 
posterior edge, the base of the triangle, nearly straight, latero-ante- 
rior edges dentate ; from each orbit a ridge runs backwards, curving 
outwards, and becomes effaced before reaching the edge of the shell, 
and from these two ridges the surface of the shell slopes down out- 
ward and forwards ; at the middle of the length of the shell a trans- 
verse ridge connects these, and from it the surface of the shell slopes 
backwards ; third segment of first pair of feet dilated towards artic- 
ulation, with carpus, dentated on anterior edge ; hand triangularly 
prismatic,, upper and outer edges lamellar, with prominent and distant 
teeth ; third s^ment of the other feet furnished with lamellar lan- 
ciniate teeth, only the second and third pair when extended, exhibit- 
ing their tips beyond the vaulted edge of the shell. This description 
of a well-known species is given to introduce more distinctly the 
following new one from our own coast. 

* Cryptopodia oranulata — Charleston Cabinet. Shell triangular, 
with the lateral angles sharp, middle two-thirds of posterior edge 
prominent In a regular curve, latero-anterior edges slightly crenate ; 
ridges from the orbits running back but a third of the length of the 
shell, and meeting with a short transverse ridge ; from the two extre- 


mities of this, two ridges run backward, parallel with the latero- 
anterior edges of the shell, until they reach the posterior edge at the 
two extremities of its curved portion, and with it circumscribe a 
sub-triangular space, in the centre of whidi is a tubercle ; third seg- 
ment of first pair of feet not at all dilated, or but slightly so ; the 
four other pair without spines, and when folded, wholly concealed 
under the lateral arches of the shell — when extended, exhibiting tkeir 
two last s^ments ; upper and outer edges of the hand, whteh is 
triangularly prismjitlc, granulate, as also the posterior edge of t^ 
shell, the two ridges running to it, the transverse ridges of the seg- 
ments of the abdomen, and other lines on the body. Rostrum 
lamellar short, but well-marked. Length 0.45 of an inch, breadth 
0.60 ; length of preceding species an inch and a half nearly, breadth 
two and a half. The iirst specimen, of this species was olrtamed by 
Dr. T. L. BuBDBN, of Charleston, near Kiawah Iskad, drawn up on 
a bit of sponge by a hook and line; a second was found by myself 
at the eastern end of Sullivan's Island, the day after the geAe m 
October, 1848, and a third and fourth I obtained on tke 18th August, 
1819, at White Point Shoal, Charleston Harbor; of these, two were 
lenmles, of the edze given above — ^the^^thers; males, of only -half ^ose 
dimensions. Abdomen of seven segments in both sexes. 



Oanobr I/IMBATU6, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 

CiLRPi&.r0acdRAiiiiN08, M. Edw. — ^Boston, New-York, Philadelj^a 
and Ciiarleston Cabinets. From the West Indies. 

Carpilxits uacui/Atus, M. Edw. — ^New-York Cabinet. From the 
West Indies. 

Carmobb oosFVKxcs, RUPP1BI.L— ^New-York Cabinet. Rijppslx's 
specimens were from the Red Sea. 

* Carpilius lividus, — ^This small species is in the New-York Cabi- 
net, sent from the Sandwich Islands. Shell dark livid or purple color 
v^ai&si taken out of spirits, moderately convex, smooth without fur 
rows, slightly punctate; middle portion of the frontid edge idi^tly 
{H*€»n]nent ; latero-aaiterior edges obtuse, terminated behind by an 
obtuse tooth or tubercle ; length three-fourths of an inch. 

^Carpiliits PRiBTxrotfisBus. — ^Dedn^Ds of this spedes are in the 

9M. nU ADVAHOmiBlIT OF «G^CIS. 17$ 

BoatoB, New^Yoiic aid Qiarleston Cabinets^ and I kave more tlun 
muse seen them in the small cases of Chinese insects brought to tins 
country, but have not been able to find either figure or description 
of it in any of the works to which I have access ; these are so few 
asrpwhaps hardly to warrant t^e step I have taken — ^that of imposing 
a name on it. Shell ardied anteriorly, narrowed posteriorly, convem 
longitudinally, smooth and polished, with no distinction of regions, 
marked with about 25 reddish colored spots distributed symmetri- 
oally on a li^t ground ; latero-anterior edges obtuse, without denta- 
tion of any kind, and wantix^ even the rounded tubercle, in whidi 
they terminate in the other q)eciesof the genus ; fnmt with a minute 
fissure, curved in outline, so as to present four lobes very slightly 
prominent, and marked transversely witii a punctate line ; orbits oval, 
wkhout tooth or fissure ; the hiatus between their lower ec^e and 
the fir^it filled by the basillar segment of tiie exterior antenne, whi^ 
joms the front, die moveable peduncle lying in- the fissure; hands 
robust, moderately compressed, punctate, without crest, spine or 
taberde, fingers trenefaant, not spoon-shaped ; four last pair <^ feel 
compressed, without crest or spines, marked with spots like the body» 

LAao6a*OMA itodosa, Bansaix — ^Philadelphia Gsbinet, Sandwich 

Xaviho flokidus, LsAoa — ^Boston and New-York Cabinets. 

Xantbo RivuiiOsus — ^M. Enw. — Charleston Cabinet. 

* Chlorodius FLonmANue — Charleston Cabinet. Brought frwni^ 
Key Wt^ in numbers, by Dr. Wubdkmann in 1845, and lately by 
Prof. W. H. Harvby. Shell depressed, broader than long, r^idered 
uneven by low promifiauices, separated by shallow groves, these 
ptominenoes or flat knobs marked with transverse plieations ; front,, 
^two truncated lobes, separated by « fissure, anterior edge of lobes 
grooved ; lat^o-anteiricNr edges armed with five triangular teeth point- 
ing, forwards, the anterior one forming the angle of the eye; basal 
porUon of external antenna filling the hiatus and touching the front, 
the peduncle being lodged in the hiatus ; third segment oi the ante-« 
rior feet short, just reaching edge of shell, carpus and hand, stout in 
the male, somewhat oorrugated, spotted with red, filler and thumb 
brownish black, toothed on their opposing edges, spoon ehaped at 
tip, with a tuft of hair in the cavity ; other pairs of legs villose \ 
^rd segment of foot jaws slightly notched on its anterior edge« 
Length 0.75 of inch, breadth l.iO of inch. 

Pamopsob HmBsm, M. £dw.— Boston, New«>York, Philadelphia 


and Charleston Gabinets. Common on Coast of New-York^ aocord- 
ing to Dbkat ; common in Charleston Harbour ; brought me from 
Key West by Dr. Wurdsmann. 

Panopeus LiM08ns;r M. £dw, — Philadelphia and Charleston Cabi- 
nets. Coaat of New-York^ Dms-AY ; I have obtained them on the 
coast of South- Carolina, and have them from Smyrna, Flo., and 
from Key West 

* Panopeus WuBDEMAvirn — Charleston Cabinet. Brought me from 
JSnterprize, Fla,, hy the late Dr. F. Wubdemann, who recognized as 
distinct fi*om P. Herhstii, the young of which it most nearly resem- 
bles, and whose females are also frequently found carrying their ^gs 
in the usual manner, when not larger than the present species. This 
species is, however, easily distinguished ; the anterior edge of the 
front is marked by a grove, (not apparent in either of the preceding 
species,) whose borders are formed by finely granulated ridges ; the 
surface of shell also is marked by a few distinct transverse ridges, 
which never appear so well marked in P. Herhstii, even when of 
larger size ; the finger and thumb in this species are white ; length 
0.5 of inch, breadth 0.7 of inch. 

PsEUDocAROiNus RuMPHii, M. Edw. — Bostou and Charleston Cabi- 
nets ; also, in the American Museum, New- York. 

f PsEunocABCiNus MERCENARius — ^Bostou, Philadelphia Bud Charles- 
ton Cabinets. This is the Cancer mercenaria of Sat, (Jour. Acad. 
Nat. Sci., vol. i, p. 448,) abundant along our Southern Coast, from 
Charleston Harbour to Key West, and known as the Stone Crab. It 
' is referred by Milne Edwards, with some doubt, to the genus 
Xantho, of Leach, (M. Edw. Hist. Crust, tome i, p. 309,) and also 
by Dekay, (New- York Fauna, Crustacea, p. 4,) and I have so la- 
belled it in the Boston Cabinet ; but I have no hesitation in referring 
it to M. Edwards' own genus Psetuiocarcinus, and feel confident he 
htid it before him when writing his description of Pseudocarcinus 
ocelUUus, (op. cit., p. 409.) His description applies in every parti- 
cular, but is short. The country of his specimens he says is un- 

Etisus LifiviMANus, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Platycarcinus pagurus, M. Edw. — ^The only specimen of this 
species that I have seen, is in the American Museum in New- York, 
apparently of full dimensions, 5 or 6 inches in length, 8 inches in 

Platycarcinus irrobatub, M. Edw. — Boston, PhiladelpLia and 


Charleston Cabinets ; also, in the American Museum, New-York, 
This is the Cancer irroratfus of Sat, or rather what he regarded as 
the female of the species so named by him. It is found on the coast 
of the New-England States, I have not met with it at the south. 

Plattgarcinus Sayi, Dekay — Boston, New-York and Charleston 
Cabinets. This species was regarded by Say as the male of his 
Cancer irroratus, and was separated from that species by Dr. A. A. 
Gould, as Cancer Sayi, I have collected it on the Coast of Maasor 
ckusettSy and on the Coast of Netih Jersey ; I have also a specimen 
taken by fishermen off Charhstmi Harbour^ and have seen one other 
specimen taken on the Coast of South- Carolina. 

Platycarcinus productus, Bandall — Philadelphia Cabinet. A 
distinct species from the three others, brought from the Western 
Coast of North America. 

PiLUMNUs ACULSATus, M. Edw. — Philadelphia and Charleston Ca- 
binets. The Cancer acukatus of Say. My specimens are from 
the Coast of Southr Carolina, inhabiting sponges, &c. 

PiLUMNUs viLLOsus, Risso. — Charleston Cabinet. 

Eriphia spinifrons, Latr. — Boston, New- York and Charleston 

Eriphia oonaora, M. Edw. — ^Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston 
Cabinets. My specimens are Key West, whence Dr. Wurdkmann 
brought me several. 

Trapezia gyhodoob, Guekin — Philadelphia and Charleston Cabi- 

2. Tribe Portuniana. 

Carcinus HiBNAS, Leagh — Bostou, New-York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. From the Coast of Neto-England States. 

Platyonighus ogellatus, Latr. — Boston, New-York, Philadel- 
phia and Charleston Cabinets. Dr. Gould enumerates it among the 
Crustacea of coast of Massachusetts, I have collected it on the coast 
of New-Jersey, and on the coast of South- Carolina, and a single spe- 
cimen was brought me from Key West. It is the Cancer ocellatus 
of Herbst, and the Portunus pictus of Say. 

PoRTUNUs PURER, Leagh — Ncw-York Cabinet. 

Portunus pligatus, M. Edw. — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. 

Portunus marmoreus, Leagh — New-York and Charleston Cabi- 


PoRTUKUB OORRUOATUB, LiBAOB — ^Bostoii and Charleston Cabinets. 

PoRTUNUs RoNDBLsrn, Risso — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. 

LuPA TRANQUBBARicA, M. Edw. — ^Boston and New-York Cabinets. 

LuPA DicANTHA, M. Edw. — Boston, New-York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. Inhabits coast of MassiuhuseUa, according to 
GrouLD; I have seen it in abundance in the markets of New- York 
and Philadelphia ; it abounds in Charleston Harbour^ and I have 
specimens from Key West, Demerara is the most southern point 
from which I have seen it. In the spedmens from Charleston Har- 
bour and northwards, the middle spines of the front are obsolete, 
but distinct in those from Key West and Demerara. This crab is 
the Lupa hastata of Say. 

f Lupa SAvi^-^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. This crab^ is not 
uncommon on the coast of Souths Carolina^ whence my specim^s 
proceed, and I regard it as the Lupapeloffica of Sat, but as it is not 
the Lupapek^ica of Lbach, Milne Edwards and others, I have at- 
tached to it the name of its first describer ; his description applies 
perfectly to it, but the specimen to which his original label is affixed 
in the Philadelphia Cabinet, does not belong to this species; perhaps 
some interchange of labels has taken place. Dbkay, in the Fauna 
of New-York, pi. 6, fig. 8, gives a recognizable figure of it, but that 
will scarcely give an adequate idea of the beauty of its coloration 
when first taken from its native element. 

Lupa cribraria, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia and Charleston Cabinets. 
From coast of South- Carolina and from Key West, This is the Lvipa 
maculata of Sat, and appears to be the same as Lamarck's Portunus 
eribraritis, and as the latter specifioname is the prior one, I have re- 
tained it. 

Lupa. spiNDfANA, Lbaos — ^Boston Cabinet, and also in the Ameri- 
can Museum, New-York. 

Lupa rubra, M. Edw.— Philadelphia and Charleston Oabinets. 
My specimens are from Key Westy by Dr« Wurdbmann. 

Lupa forcbps, Lbaoh — New-York Cabinet. 

Thalamita PUiiOBRA, BANDALL^—Phikdel^a Cabinet, appears t& 
be very near T^ erythro-dactyla — M. Edw. 

PoDOPHTHALMus vioiL, Lbagh — ^Philadelphia and Qiarleston Cabi- 
nets. From the Sandwich Islands. 




Thblfhbusa fluviatilis, Latr. — New-York and Charleston Cabi- 
nets. From the Mediterranean. 

Thblfhbusa inbioa, Latr. — ^Boston Cabinet, 

PoTAMiA DBNTATA, Latr. — ^BostOH and Philadelphia Cabinets. 
The BoBcia dentata of M. Edwards, — Fotamia is the prior name. 

PoTAMiA LAiiFRONS, Randall — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. Distinct 
from P. deniata, Latr. w 

Trichodactylus quadratus, M. Edw. — ^Boston Cabinet. 


Orthostoma DBNTATA, Randall — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. A dis- 
tinct genus, but I do not feel confident that it has its proper place in 
the systematic arrangement. 

UcA UNA, Latr. — New-York and Philadelphia Cabinets. 

Oardisoma carnifbx, Latr. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Cardisoma guanhumi, LATR.r— Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, and 
Charleston Cabinets. My spedmens are from Key West^ Fla. 

GrBCAROiNus RURicoLA, Latr. — ^Boston, Ncw-York, Philadelphia 
and Charleston Cabinets. 

Gbcarcinus latbraus, M. Edw. — ^Boston and PhOadelphia Cabi- 


PiNNOTHBRBS osTRBUM, Sat — ^Ncw-York and Charleston Cabinets. 
From the Coast of New- York and Coast of South-Carolina^ most 
probably its range is from Cape Cod to Key West. 

PiNNOTHBRBS MACiJiiATUS, Say — Ncw-York and Oiarlcston Cabinets. 
Flrom Coast of New- York and Coast of South- Carolina, Pinnotheres 
is masculine, bat Bay, misled perhaps by the termination in the Eu> 
ropean species P.pisum, everywhere regards it as neuter. The ac- 
cent is on the penult. 

PiNNOTHBRBS BYBsoMLA, Sat— 'Philadelphia Cabinet; Say's origi. 
nal specim^i and label. 



OoTPODB ARXNARiA, Say — ^Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston 
Cabinets. My specimens are from the Coast of SouthrCarolina and 
from Ke^ West. 

OoTPODB RHOMBXA, M. Edw. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

OcYPODB Fabriciub, M. Edw. — New- York Cabinet. 

Gblabimus plattdacttlus, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia and Charleston 

Gelasimus yocans, M. Edw. — Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, 
and Charleston Cabinets. Coast of Atlantic States, from Massachu- 
setts to Key West. I ^ not know whether those inhabiting our 
ooast, those inhabiting the West Indies, and those proceeding from 
Brazil, form one species, as M. Edwards appears to regard them, or 
as seYcral, as others appear to haYe arranged them, not haYing had 
the means of effecting a comparison. 


PsBUDORHOMBiLA QUADRiDBNTATA, M. Edw. — ^The ouly spedmcu of 
this crab that I haYe seen is in the American Museum in New-York 
— a fine specimen. 

GoNOPLAx RBOMBOiDBS, Dbsm. — ^BostoD and Charleston Cabinets. 

Macrophthalmus compressipbs, Randall. — Philadelphia Cabinet. 
Distinct from the other species of the genus. M. podolpkihaJmus 
of the Yoyage of the Bonite is a synonyme of this species. 


Sbsarma africana, M. Edw. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Sesarma bbcta, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Sbsarma reticulata, Say — Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, and 
Charleston Cabinets. Those in the Philadelphia Cabinet were said 
to haYe been found on the Coast of New^ersey, I haYe obtained 
them on the Coast of SouthrCarolina, and I haYe specimens from 
Key West, In South-Carolina they are by no means as abundant as 
the next species. 

Sbsarma cinbrea. Say — Boston, New-York, Philadelphia, and 
Charleston Cabinets. This is the €hrapsus cinerens of Bosc. Abun- 
dant in Charleston Harbour, and exists also at Key West. Milnb 


Edwards, (op. cit, tome, ii. p. 75, note) confounds this species, and 
the preceding, and so does DcKay, (New-York Fauna, Crustacea, 
p. 15,) but they are quite distinct and readily distinguished ; S, re- 
ticula(a, has a thicker body than S, einerea, and is every way more 
robust ; the latter has no tooth behind the exterior angle of the or- 
bit, the former, a small but very perceptible one, sometimes becom- 
ing quite prominent, and also a granulated line on the crest of the 
liand, "vi^iich is wanting in the latter. This enables me to say that 
Dr. DeKat, while writing his description of & cm^rea, had S, reticu- 
lata before him, and probably the want of specimens of both species, 
prevented him from seizmg the distinctive characters. 

Sbsarma Pisonii, M. Edw. — ^Boston, New-York, and Charleston 
Cabinets. My specimen was sent me^rom Key West^ by S. R. Mal* 
LORY, Esq. 

Grapsus cRusyTATUs, Latr. — ^Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston 
Cabinets — also, in the American Museum, New-York. The specimens 
in my Cabinet are from Key West. Those in the Philadelphia Cabi- 
net are said to be from Surinam, and being regarded by Dr. Randall as 
new, were described by him as G, lonpipes. (Jour. Acad. Nat. 8ci. vol. viii. 
p. 1 25.) In my note on this spedes, appended to the Catalogue sent to the 
Academy, I see, that in seeking for a reason for the error of Dr. R., I 
have committed the strange mistake of regarding Surinam as not 
a locality for this spedes ; as it is an inhabitant of the West In- 
dies and Brazil, I can perceive no reason why it should not inhabit 

Qrapsub lividus, M. Edw. — ^Boston and New-York Cabinets. The 
specimen in the Boston Cabinet was brought from Florida, by Mr. 

Grapsus pictus, Latr.— Boston, New-York, Philadelphia and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. My specimen is from Key West. 

Grapsus rudis, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. From the Sand- 
wich Islands. This is the same as G, hirtus of Randall, and M. 
Edwards' name is the prior one. With him I regard G. rudis as distinct 
from G. pictus, though it differs only in the following particulars: 
The shell is clothed with numerous but distinct transverse lines of hairs ; 
the front is not so perpendicularly turned down, the four lobes of the 
front are more tuberculous, and the limbs are smaller whai compared 
with the body. 

Grapsus varius, Latr. — ^Boston Cabinet 

* Grapsus transversus. — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. This 


apectes ms brought me from Key West, by Dr. WuRDBHAKK^iii 1845, 
and lately by Prof. W. H^ HARyxT,from the same place, where it ap- 
pears to be common. Those in the Boston Cabinet were, I believe, 
also l»oiight from Moiida by Mr* Barti.ktt. Shell broader than usual 
in the genus, and nairowed posteriorly, the length being only three- 
fourths the breadth, with a weU marked tooth on each side, behind that 
which forms the external orbitar angle, marked with many tranaveiBe 
slightly eleyated lines of fine granules, of a darker color than the rest oi 
the shell, producing the appealing of fine plications ; several of those 
lines conveige to the lateral tooth on each side, they are most dia- 
tinct on the anterior portion of the sheU, and beoome obsolete on 
the hinder part; front, a little more than half the breadth of the 
shell sloping gently downwards and forwards, edge slightly sinuous 
as if bilobate, marked above with the four elevations peculiar to the 
genus, moderately developed; third segment of the exterior jaw-feet 
dilated and rounded on the outer side ; hands smooth polished, with 
a corrugated area on the crest, and an elevated line on the outside 
near the lower edge, running to the tip of the finger. By these char- 
acters, it will be seen that it belongs to M. Eowjotn's second division 
of the genus, or BANnALL's^genus^ Fiuhygrapsue^ifthaX be adopted. 

Pacbtobapsus c&AsaiPjns, Bahdall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Pachtobafsus paballblus, Ranpall — Philadelphia and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. These appear to be distinct from the described spe- 
cies of the genus Orapsue, 

Nautiloobapsus minutub, M. Edw. — Boston, New- York, Philadel- 
phia and Charleston Cabinets. This is the Orapeus cinereus of Bat, 
described in Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. vol. i., p. d9, supposing it to be 
the Orapeus cinereus of Bosc; on p. 449, the name is changed by 
him to &, pelagieus, on finding the true G, cinerew of Bobc, the Se- 
sarma einerea of late writers. This species has never been found-on 
our coast, as far as I am aware, but it is not imcommon in the 
Cfulf Stream^ oS the coast, from the €hdf,of Mexico to New- York, 
oUngiug to mfirine animate and vegetables. 

Plaousia^oIiAvjmana, Latb. — ^New-York and Philadelphia Cabinets. 
In the PhUadelphia Cabinet there are young individuals broug^ 
fiipm Sai^ Cruz, by Dr. R. E. Gbiffith, and one individual said to 
be from the Pa(4fic; no perceptible difference (existed betwe^ thoite 
from different localities. .^in^ t.p' /: 

Plaousia squamosa, Lamk. — ^Boston, New-York, Philadelphia and 
(Aarleaton Cabinets. My. specimens are from Key TTeft,^ brought by 


Dr. WuBDKMANV, and from Charleston Harbor^ obtained 1^ Dr. £b^ 
XUHD Raitxnsl on the Breakwater on SnUiTan's Island, three or lour 
years einoe^ It seems to have made its appearance on onr ooast^ or at 
least on that of Sullivan's Island, only since the oonstruo^n of tlie 
Preakwnter, as it never presented itself before to Dr. Batbhbl, dnring 
a residence of more, than twenty successive summers. This is the^P. 
depr€89us of Say, but not the P. depteasa of other authon. I have 
never seen spedmens of the P. squamosa of the Red Sea and LkHaa 
Ocean, to ascertain by comparison how fiur it differs from that speciee, 
but it agrees so completdy with the desoziptions and figures of it that 
I will not dedde to separate it. If distinguished from that, it will take 
the name P. Sayi^ assigned to it by Dr. DxKat. 



Oala^pa qbanulata, Fabb. — ^Boston and New-York Oabinets. 

Calappa mabmobata, Fabb. — ^Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston 
Cabinets ; also in the American Museum, New-York. The spedmetti 
in my Cabinet are/rom Key West, where they axe called Box Crabs ,aB 
I was informed by Dr. Wubdbmann, who brougiit them. I have also a 
specimen, said to have been taken by fishermen of Oharleston ffarbof, 

Calappa lopbos, Fabb. — ^Boston Calnnet. 

Calappa obistata, Fabb — ^Boston and Philadelphia Cabinets, 

Calappa tubsboulata, Fabb. — ^Philadelphia and Charleston Cabi- 

Plattmbba Gaudiobaudii, M« £dw. — ^Boston and New-York Cabi- 

Obttbia mamillabis, Fabb. — ^The only example of this species that 
I have seen is a very good specimen in the American Museum, at New- 

Hbpatus fasoiatus, Latb. — ^Boston, New-York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. 

* Hbpatus dxoobus — Charleston Cabinet. I have for several yean 
past, separated, under the above name, this species from the preceding, 
with which it undoubtedly has been confounded by carcinologists, except 
Hbbbbt. It is common in Charleston Harbour, and at times its exuviis 
are abundant on the beadies. I have specimens of all sizes, from half 
an inch in length up to two inches, exhibiting the series of changes it 


tmdergoeB as it advanoeB in age. The two species, ff.fageiatus and M. 
deeorus^ resemble each other closely in the size and form of the body 
and the dentation of its latero-anterior edges, in the form and armature 
of the carpus and hand, and in the form and colored markings of the 
' four hinder pair of feet. They differ in ihe markings of the shelL In 
the ff,/a8ciatu8, (of which I have only seen adult individuals,) the 
spots, which are deep red on a pale ground, are small and distributed in 
transverse bands slightly convex forward, or, in some specimens, aie 
broken up into smaller spots and dots, and scattered irregularly over the 
whole surface. In ff, deearus, the spots, in adult individuals, are large, 
of a light red color, bordered with a deeper tint of red, and symmetri- 
cally disposed on the two sides of the shell ; this longer diameter, when 
not circular, being frequently in the direction of the length of the shell, 
In young individuals, or at least smaller ones, the spots still retain their 
large size compared with that of the shell, the same character of color- 
ation, that is, a pale disk, with darker border, but their longer ciameter 
is transverse, and they are so arranged as to run in transverse curved 
bands, with the convexity forwards, and occasionally their extremities 
run one into another, so that they form a continuous band from one 
side of the shell to the other ; the transition from the latter of these 
forms to the former can be easily traced when a number of shells of 
different sizes are compared. In IT. decorus there are on each of the 
branchial re^ons on the two sides two transverse lines of granules, sep- 
arated by a wide space, the anterior one being the longer ; these are 
most distinct in small specimens, and become less so in the larger, and 
not unfrequently are entirely effaced. In ff.fcueiatus, in the same posi- 
tions, there are groups or patches of granules irregularly distributed 
and well-marked in the large individuals ; Dbsmarbst's figure (Consid 
Qen. Crust., pi. 9, fig. 2,) exhibits the position of these groups and the 
distribution of the granules. In ff.foisciatus there is a granulated ridge 
running from the external angle of the eye outwardly to the denticu- 
lated edge of the shell, quite distinct in the older individuals. In the 
It. decorus this ridge is equally distinct in young individuals before the 
change in the markings of the shell jbas taken place ; afterwards it 
becomes fainter, and in some fdll-sized specimens no trace pf it is left 
These characteristics indicate that there are two distinct species, and that * 
JBf.fitseiatus is the lower form of the two, since it retains in adult age 
the characters presented by the other only in its early stages. It is 
proper to add that I have never seen an individual of ff.fnuciatus on 
owr coast) where ff, decorus is common. This is undoubtedly the Can- 


eer deeorus of Herbst — ^Natiu^escliiclite der Erabben und Erebaen^ 
Band ii, s. 154, Tab. 37, fig. 6 — ^and I am glad to be able to establish 
one of the species of that industrious collector, long overlooked by car- 
'dnologists ; Milnb Edwards makes no reference to it. The Flatycar' 
cirms deeorus, indicated on page 29 of the Bulletin of Proceedings of 
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, by the committee on 
my catalogue of the Crustacea in their Cabinet^ is, I have no doubt, the 
Hepatu8 deeorus, Hbrbst says that unfortunately he had only a shell 
of this crab, and that its fatherland is unknown. 
Hbpatus OHiLiBNsiB, M. Edw. — New-York Cabinet 


Lbuoosia Urania, Leaoh — ^Boston Cabinet 
Lbucosia craniolaris. Leach — New-York Cabinet 
Ilia nucleus. Leach — ^Boston, New-York and Charleston Cabinets, 
* Ilia arm at a — New-York Cabinet This new and well-marked spe- 
des I found in the Cabinet of the Lyceum of Natural History of New- 
York, and presented a description to be published in their proceedings, 
which I vnll here transcribe. Body sub-globose, sub-circular in outline, 
with posterior edge lamellar, straight, projecting with the angles slightly 
rounded, surmounted by a single large sub-lamellar, acutely-pointed 
dentiform process, slightly curved upwards at top; sur&ce of shell 
granulate granules, most distinct on anterior and lateral parts, and on 
upper surface of the tooth or process above mentioned ; anterior feet 
moderately long, nearly twice the length of body, slender, third segment 
tapering from the articulation near the body to the other, granulate 
granules largest near the body and on the upper surface, carpus short, 
hands long, slender, tapering to articulation of finger, finger and thumb 
filiform, the former articulated in a direction at right angles to that of 
the carpus and hand ; legs of four last pair slender, with long and slen- 
der tarsi ; abdomen having the fourth, fifth and sixth segments in one, 
in the only individual seen, a female ; length of body one inch ; country 

GuAiA PUNCTATA, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia and Charleston Cabinets ; 
also in the American Museum in New-York. My specimens are from 
Charleston Harbour; I have found it also abundant on the coast of 
Georgia, This crab has been frequently confounded with Hia punctata 
of MiLNB Edwards, the Leucosia jmnctata of previous writers, for 
want of attention to the slender fingers and to the peculiar contorted 


foim of the hand» in the geniu /Zta. The Leueofia pufu^aia mention- 
ed by Sat, (J. A. K. 6^ vol. 1, page 458,) as veiy common on the 
Southern coasts, and the ii^ta punctata of DsEat, (op. eit, p* 1*7,) aie 
undoubtedly Ouaia punetakif and must rank as its synonymesi Tbe 
country of the true Hia punctata of M. Edw. appears to be unknoifn. 
I have not been able to obtain access to a copy of foowN-s Jamaica^ to 
examin e his descriptions and figures of Hia punctata and of Guaia 
jmnctata^ referred to by M. Edwabdb. 

t Guaia ornata — ^Philadelphia Cabinet This Is a very distinct and 
pretty species of the genus Guaia^ from Upper Gahfonaa, described by 
Dr. Randall as Hia ornata, (J. A. N. S., vol. yiii, p. 129,) but really 
belongs to the genus to which I have referred it. Probably, for want 
of specimens at hand really belonging to Hia, Dr. R. overlooked its 
peculiar characters. 


AnLBOTOLira orubntatub, Dxaii; — ^New-York Oabinet 
AnuoTOLUS Chilbnbib, M Edw. — ^New-T(Nrk Oabinet 


DoRiPPs LAHATA, Lamk. — ^Bostou Cabinet 
DoRippx QUADRiDXNTATA, Latr. — Ncw-Tork Cabinet 
DoRipps 8IMA, IL Edw. — ^New-York and Charleston GahinelB. 
Cm opouA Caronii, Roux — ^Boston and CSiarleston GalnnetB. 





Dbomia vulgaris, M. Edw. — ^Boston and New-York Cabinets. 
Droioa lator, M. Edw. — ^Boston, Philaddphia and Charieston Oar 
fainets. My specimen isyrom Key West 


HoMOLA spiviFROirs, LsACH — ^Now-YorK Cabinet 


L1THODS8 ABTioAy Latb. — Boston CalHlnet. The speotmen was oV 
tained on the coast of MoMochusetis, 


Ranika dbntata, Latr. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. Two fine speci- 
mens. Dimensionid oi laj^pest : shell 4 1-2 in^es long and as many 
broad, shell with abdomen extended 7 inches ; breadth of hand^ finger 
excluded, 1 1-4 inch, finger included, 2 1-2 inches ; length of thumb 
or moveable finger, 1 1-^ inch ; length of one of the first pair of faet, 
•thumb extended, is 7 inches. 

Rakiua muricata, M. EDW.-*-Boston and Charleston Cabinets. Hie 
specimens were brought /rom Florida by Mr. Babtlbtt. M. Edwabqs' 
description was drawn from r single specimen in bad condition in the 
Cabinet of the Museum of Natural History at Paris, and no ^gas^ of 
it has been given. I have a colored drawing of it made two or three 
years since, and hope to publish it with a description in the oourne of 
the year, in the Boston Journal pf Natural History. 



Albunsa stmnista, Fabr. — Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston 
Cabinets, My spedmens are only fragments of the exuviae of this spe- 
cies, found by me on the beach at Sullivan's Island, at entrance of 
Charleston Harbour, I cannot decide without specimens of the foreign 
species for comparison, whether this is new or not ; the short descrip- 
tion of M. £dwards and others, apply to it in nearly all particulars. 

Albunxa scutellata, Desm. — Charleston Cabinet. Fragments 
from Charleston Harbour, The preceding remarks apply here also, 
but it is to be observed the country of this species is not given by 
Desmabesm and Milne Edwards. I believe this is the first notice 
that has been given of the existence of these two species on this con- 

Blepharipoda occidentalis, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. A 
well marked genus ; the individual is a female, abdomen with ap- 
pendages, first pair of feet cheliform ; hence near Albunea, but quite 

Remipes testudinarius, Latr. — Boston Cabinet 



HippA BMXBiTA, Latb. — ^New-York and Oiarleston Cabinets. Hie 
specimens in these two Cabinets are from the coast of Brazil, and 
enable me to make a comparison with our own spedes. 

HipPA TALPOiBEA, Sat — Boston, N. York, Philadelphia and Qiarles- 
ton Cabinets. Since receiviDg the Brazilian specimens, I have not 
had an opportmiity of again examining individuals from the coast of 
Massaehusetts and New-York^ but have little doubt that they agree 
with those in my Cabinet from Charleston Harbour^ and from Key 
West. On comparing the Brazilian and Carolina specim^is, the dif- 
ference between them is obvious, though perhaps not easily conveyed 
in words, being one of degree, no absolute diaracter presenting it- 
self for distinguishing them. The chief points of diflerence are in 
the rostrum, form and size of the terminal segment of the first pair 
of feet, and of the third segment of the exterior jaw feet, and in the 
degree of serrature of the latero-anterior edge of the shell. In the 
H. emerita, the rostrum is acute and nearly as prominent as the ad- 
jacent teeth of the rostral sinus, in the ff. talpoidea^ it is rounded at 
tip, less prominent, sometimes almost obsolete in the first species, 
the terminal segment of the first pair of feet is oval or ovate, rounded 
at tip ; in the second, narrower, more lanceolate, sometimes acute at 
tip. A similar difference exists in the third segment of the exterior 
jaw-feet, which is broad, and dilated posteriously in JJ. emerita, and 
is narrow and elongated tn IT. talpoidea ; in the former, the serrature 
of the latero-anterior edges is minute, but very distinct ; in the lat- 
ter, it is indistinct or obsolete; also the spines on various parts are 
more robust and strongly marked in ff. emerita, than in H. talpoi- 
dea, as the three spines, on the large basilar segment of the external 
antennae, the spine on the fourth segment of first pair of feet, and 
the prolongation of the fifth. The Brazilian specimens, three in num- 
ber, all females, with eggs, presented a complete agreement in their 
characters, as did also three out of four Carolina specimens, all four 
also females ; the fourth, was more marked than the others, rostrum 
scarcely visible, last segment of the first pair of feet narrow and 
acutely pointed ; third segment of jaw-feet, narrow, and tapering an- 


Pagurus Bernhardus, Latr. — Boston and Philadelphia Cabinets. 
This species has been found on the coast of the eastern StcUes, and 
the specimens, I believe, are deposited in the Cabinet of the Boston 
Soc. Nat. Hist. 


Paoarus callidus, Roux — Boston Cabinet. 

Pagurub punotulatus, Oliyisr — ^New-York and Philadelphia Ca- 
binets. , 

Paourub oranulatus, Olivier — Boston, Philadelphia and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. My specimens are >rom Key West. 

Paourus aniculus, Olivier — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Paourus vittatus, Bosc. — Charleston Cabinet. This species is 
very abundant in Charleston Harbour. I have it also^om Key West. 

Paourus pollicaris, Say — Boston, New-York, P4uladelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. Enumerated among the Invertebrata of Mas- 
sachusetts by Dr. Gould; coast of New- York, Dr. Dbkay. My 
specimens Skrejrom Charleston Harbour, and I have them also from 
Key West. 

Paourus lonoioarpus, Sat — ^Boston, New-York and Charleston 
Cabinets. From coa^t of Massachusetts, Dr. Gould ; coast of New- 
York, Dr. DxKAT ; rather common in Charleston Harbour. 

Paourus oarinatus, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Pagurub btmmbtricus, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Pagurub dbcorub, Randall — Philadelphia and Boston Cabinets. 

Pagurub LiBviMANus, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Pagurub latenb, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

* Pagurub tricolor — Charleston Cabinet. Brought from Key 
West by Dr. Wurdemann. Opthalmic ring without rostriforme pro- 
cess, ocular peduncles equal in length to the basilar portion of the 
external antenns, and longer than their spiniform process, blue, cor- 
nea black, with white dots; rostrum reduced to a mere acute tooth, 
scarcely perceptible ; anterior feet deep brown, spotted with white, 
tips of lingers black, carpus granulated and heiry ; two following 
pairs of feet sky blue, annulated with orange at the upper part of 
each segment, just beneath articulation, tarsi yellow with brown 
spots, and an orange ring just beneath the articulation ; external an- 
tenna orange, first segment of internal antennse blue, second blue 
beneath, orange above, tuft at the extremity orange ; shell, blue, an- 
terior portion subquadrilateral with four black spots ; length of body 
and abdomen one inch. 

Cbnobita Diogenes, M. Edw. — Boston, Philadelphia and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. The specimens of the Charleston Cabinet are from 
Key West. 

3. Tribe Porcellaniana. 

Porcbllana oinotipbs, Randall — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 


PoRCBLLANA PLATTCHBLEB, Lamk. — Charleston Cabinet. 

PoRCELLAKA 80CIATA, Sat — Philadelphia and Charleston Cabinets. 
In the Philadelphia Cabinet is Sat's original specimen, collected on 
the coast of Georgia, without the label however. I have spedmens 
from the coast of S. Carolina said from Key West I have not been 
able to identify Milnb Edwards' jP./h/ome with this species nor with 
any of the following ; he says it is from the environs of *' CSiarles- 
town," in the United States. Nor have I been more saccessful in 
identifying Lbach's Pisidia Sayana^ (Dbsm. Consid. Gen. Crust., p. 
199,) nor the Porcellana yalathina of Boso, either as described by 
himself with figure, (Hist. Nat. Crust, tom 1, p. 299, 2d edit.,) or by 
Dbsmarbst, {op, dt. p. 199.) 

* PoROBLLANA ocBLLATA — Charleston Cabinet. Coiut of South-Cor 
roliwa. Front trifid, middle lobe most prominent, with central de- 
pression, in some individuals sub-acute, with sub-dentate edges, ou- 
ter angle of the eye acute, but without spine, shell with a distinct 
border running backwards two-thirds its length ; carpus short, with 
projecting lobe at base of inner edge, this edge without spines, outer 
edge with a slightly raised border, with a single spine at articulation 
with hand ; hand sub-triangular, lower edge dliate ; shell smooth, 
without spines, with whitidi spots, when recent, on a reddish ground, 
which is frequently deeper around the spots ; posterior part of shell 
and abdomffli with reddish longitudinal bands, hand and carpus of 
laege claw marked like shell, feet with transverse reddish bands, in 
winch the ocelli may be frequently perceived. All these markiBgs 
are less distinct in the dry specimen. 

* PoRCBLLAMA ARMATA — ^Bostou and OuHrlcston Cabinets. JProm 
Florida^ Front not trifid, middle portion prominent, lateral portions 
rounded ; eyes prominent, outer angle of c^-bit obtuse, a little dis- 
tance behind it, on the edge of the shell, an acute spine, firom which 
an indistinct border runs back, carpus twice as long as broad, ante- 
rior edge with three acute teeth, posterior edge bordered with fbur 
or five small spines, hand sub-triangular, lower edgp serrate, with 
small spines; third segment of the three followi^ feet, with two or 
three spines on the upper edge, one at the anterior termination of the 
lower edge; shell brownish red in the dried specimen, rugnlose with 
smaiU transverse piliferons lines, these are apparent also on the feet, 
and more distinct on the carpus and hand where the lines are gram^ 

* PoRCBLLATA sBzspivoBA — ^Charleston Cabinet. Collected at Key 



West l^ Dr. Wurdemann. Front not trifid, middle portion promi- 
nent, lateral portions rounded, very slightly prominent; on each 
side of the front, just over the eye, there is a spine forming, as it 
were the inner angle of the orbit, the outer angle of the orbit is also^ 
formed by a spine, short, but very distinct ; behind which, at a little 
difitance on the shell, there is another, from a marked ridge runs> 
backward, forming a border to the shell, but before reaching the 
posterior edge, turns upward and forms one of the transverse lines 
on the back ; basal joint of the external antennce with a stout ^ine ;: 
carpus moderately long, with five broad teeth on the anterior edge, 
the last forming the angle at the articulation with the hand, outer 
edge with five or six small spines, hand sub-triai^lar, serrate and 
slightly ciliate on lower edge; shell covered with long transverse,, 
distinct, piliferous lines, giving it a well marked rugous appearance,. 
lines generally extending one-third the breadth of the shell ; carpus 
and hand rugous in like manner on both sur&oesj lines running en- 
tirely across the - carpus ; third segment of the legs clothed with 
similar rugee, on the upper edge spinous. This I suppose to be the 
PorceUana observed by Say, and considered by him P, pedathina, (J. 
A.N. S.,vol. 1, p.458.) 

*PoBOSLLANA MAONiFioA — Charleston Cabinet. Brought from 
Vera Oruz by Dr. Cu^vbland, of Charleston. Front resembles that 
of the two preceding, not trifid, triangular, with a central linear de- 
pression; i^dl with length and breadth nearly equal, as in ail tlie^ 
preceding, smooth, polished, punctate, with traces of rugae near thiB 
lateral edges, which are marked with a moderately distinct line, no * 
spines in any part, anterior feet unequal in size, carpus long, about 
three times as long as broad, and as long as the shell, anterior edge 
with three distant teeUi, posterior marked with a few denticulations 
near the articulation with hand ; hand broad, flat, thumb included 
sub-triangular, but the lower edge, or anteiior edge when folded in 
repose, is regularly arched from the articulation round to the tip of 
the finger ; palmar portion as long as the carpus ; finger «id thumb 
with dieir opposing edges straight, without teeth, slightly hooked at 
tip, surface of carpus and hand, shining, but roughened with a mul- 
titude of exceedingly minute granuhitions on the upper surface, on 
the lower, they are few and scattered, and the surface comparaMvely 
smooth and pdit^ed ; color of shell and anterior feet pale red in dry 
* PoRCBLLANA MACROOHBLBB-^Charleston Cabinet. Found on the 


coast of South-Carolina by Dr. T. L. Burdbn, of Charleston. To- 
tally different in appearance from all the preceding. Body thick, 
shell transverse, length to breadth as three to four, convex longitudi- 
nally, front very slightly prominent, anterior edge nearly straight, 
eyes small, not prominent ; basal segment of external antennas mas- 
sive, completely filling up the groove in the shell in v^hich it is placed, 
and bearing only on its outer angle the moveable peduncle, which is 
thus entirely separated from the eye ; the groove is not prolonged 
backwards under the lateral portion of the shell as usual, but that 
course is marked by a fissure ; anterior feet unequal, third segment 
subcubical, rounded posteriorly, with a projecting lamellar lobe an- 
teriorly ; carpus as long as the shell, thick, subcylindrical, with an- 
terior edge curved, lamellar projecting, without teeth or spines ; the 
larger hand, long, thick, subcylindrical, anterior edge for three-fifths 
of its extent straight, ciliate, thumb falcate, acute, finger straight- 
hooked at tip, with a large tooth on the middle of the trenchant 
edge ; smaller hand more slender and compressed ; laiger hand with 
the finger, is twice the length of shell ; color pale yellowish white in 
dry specimen. 

MoNOLEPis iNERMis, Sat — Charleston Cabinet. Obtained from 
the stomach of a fish {Thynnus vulgaris^ Cuv. %) taken at sea, off the 
Atlantic coast, on a voyage from New-York to Charleston, in 1846. 

MoNOLEPis 8PINITARSUS, Say — Philadelphia Cabinet. The speci- 
men described by Sat, with his label, ^om the eoaet of South-Caro- 




Galathea strioosa, Desm. — New-York Cabinet. 

Galathea bquamifera, Leaoh — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. 


ScTLLARus AROTus, Fabr. — ^Bostou, New York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. 
SoTLLARUS LATUS, Latr. — ^New-York Cabinet. 


SoTLLARUd BQUAMMOsus, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 

ScTLLARUS BQuiNoxiALis, Farr. — New-York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. My specimen is^om Key West^ sent bj S. B. 
Mallort, Esq. 

Thbnus oribntalis, Leach — Boston, New- York and Charleston 

Ibacus antarcticus, Leach — Philadelphia Cabinet, from Sand- 
wich Islands, I believe. 

Ibacus parr^e, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. I insert under 
this name an individual in the Philadelphia Cabinet marked as 
"brought from Santa Cruz by R. E. Griffith," but it agreed in 
character with the preceding species and with M. Edwards^ descrip- 
tion of it, the spine being present on the fifth pair of feet, the absence 
of which makes his /. Parroe a native of the Antilles. Are the two 
species really one ? or is a closer comparison yet required of the 
analogous species of the Gulf of Mexico and of the Pacific? 

♦Ibachus novemdbntatus — New- York Cabinet. I will, for the 
present, indicate under this name, an individual in the above men- 
tioned Cabinet, which resembles /. Peroniiy and I believe I so labelled 
it provisionally ; but it is distinguished by the following characters : 
It has nine teeth on the lateral edges of the shell, instead of seven, 
that is, eight behind the lateral fissure of the shell, instead of six, as 
in /. Peronii, and one before the fissure, as in that species, forming 
the anterior angle of the shell ; the last segment of the exterior 
antennae have on their anterior edge six or seven teeth, instead of 
three^or four, as in /. Peromi ; of these six or seven, three are broad 
and prominent, the others small and intermediate ; and, lastly, the 
fourth segment of the external jaw-feet is traversed by seven or eight 
deep fissures, not mentioned in M. Edwards' description of /. Pero- 
nti, but may exist, for it is proper to add that I have not seen a speci- 
men really belonging to that species. Desmarest, I find, mentions 
these fissures or deep grooves in his character of the genus, which, 
however, only includes /. Peronii, 

3. tribe palinuriaka. 

Palinurus vulgaris, Latr. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Palinurus Amerioanus, M. Edw. — ^Boston, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets ; also in American Museum, New-York. I have 
Bpodm&asJromKey West, 

,/ >»*^vrv " -Jf i» '-^ •^7 dt^**"** " tVie office ot o« 

r*^'**'^ Ju***'' "^.^t .A^*^*'**' ^ fii^*!l*»* 


is united ¥rith the preceding segment by a small articulating sur&ce 
near its upper edge, somewhat inflated externally, the breadth, or 
rather the depth, nearly twice as great as the length, the posterior 
lower angle rounded, forming an edge without any trace of serrature ; 
the hand broader, or rather deeper, than the carpus, and its length, 
exclusive of the finger, iar nearly double that of the carpus, inflated 
on the internal surface, and more so on the external, lower edge cili- 
ate, and with a few small distant serrations ; whole surface of hand, 
as well as of carpus, smooth and polished. 

Gebia affinis. Sat — Charleston Cabinet. From Charleston ffar- 


AsTAOus FLUVIATILI8, Fabr. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. 

AsTAcus Bartonii, Fabr. — ^Boston, New- York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. Inhabits Massachusetts^ Dr. Gould; Nevh 
York, Dr. DeKay; I have it from New-Jersey, from the upper part 
of South- Carolina, And from Alabama, 

AsTACDB AFFINIS, Say — ^Boston, Ncw-York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. My specimens Are from Florida. 

AsTAcus Blandingii, Harlan — New- York, Philadelphia and 
Charleston Cabinets. My specimens are from the low country of 
South- Carolina, 

Abtacus pellucidus, Tellkampf — Boston and Charleston Cabi- 
nets. From the Mammoth Cave, Kentucky, 

H0MARU8 Americanus, M. Edw. — ^Boston and New-York Cabi- 
nets. From the coast of the Northern States, 

Nephrops occidbntalis, Randall — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. From 
west coast of North-America. 



Cbangon septembpinosus, Say — Boston, New- York and Charleston 
Cabinets. From the coast of the Northern States I think Sat 
must be mistaken when he says (op. cit., p. 26,) that .this species is 
found as far south as East Florida. I have never met with it at the 
South, and can scarcely believe that I have overlooked it. 

Crangon CATAPHRACTU8, M. Edw. — Boston Cabinet. 



Attoidxa bisulcata. Rand. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet. From 
wich Islands. 

Alphxub dibpar, Rand. — Philadelphia Cabinet. From Manilk 
Hardly distinct from A. brevirostriSy M. £dw. 

Alphbus LiEVis, Rand. — Philadelphia Cabinet. From Sandwich 

Alphbus hbtbbochblis, Sat — Charleston Cabinet. From Charla- 
ton Harbour and /rom Key West, I am strongly induced to believe 
that the A. armillatus of M. Edwards is the same as this species; 
the " circular depression around the large hand," mentioned by him, 
among its characters, corresponds exactly with the *' abrupt constric- 
tion near the fingers '' in Say's description. 

Alphbus minus, Say — Charleston Cabinet. — From CharUsUm Em- 
hour 9X1^ from Key West. Say puts the specific name in the neuter 

* Alphbus formosus — Charleston Cabinet. Brought from Ktij 
West, with the two preceding, by Dr. Wurdbmann. Size of A 
heterocheliSj but readily distinguished from it by the rostrum and 
hand ; rostrum large and well-formed, arising a little distance behind 
the edge of the shell by a broad base, and running forward to an 
acute point, projecting beyond the anterior edge of the shell, which 
it overhangs ; a small spine on the vaulted part of the shell ovei 
each eye ; hand smooth, moderately compressed, slightly contorted, 
without constriction or depression on the hand, and not presenting 
the deformed appearance of the hand in A, heterochelis ; a single 
spine on the hand on the inside at the articulation of the thumb ; 1 
heterochelis has no spines over the eyes ; these are present in A. 
minuSy but the rostrum which springs firom the edge of the shell is 
scarcely larger than they, so that the anterior edge appears tridentate. 

* Pontonia dombstica — Charleston Cabinet. Found on the aoon^ 
of South' Carolina, inhabiting the living shells of Pinna murkak 
and P. seminuday sometimes in company with Pinnotheres maculaJivi 
Rostrum broad, depressed, projecting, acute, body stout, smooth, with 
a small spine on the outside of the insertion of the external antenns; 
hand, excluding the finger, as long as the shell, inflated, but onlj 
about half the diameter of the body ; finger broad, with two teeth, 
thumb slender, arched, with a single tooth fitting between the two on 
the finger when closed. This, I believe, is the first time this genus 
has been indicated as belonging to America. 



HipPOLTTB MARMORATA, M. Edw. — ^Philadelphia Cabinet, Sand- 
wich Islands. 

HiPPOLYTK ACULEATA, M. Edw. — Charleston Cabinet. Taken by 
me from the stomach of a Cod or Haddock, on the he<ich^ at Lynn^ 
Ma$8,^ brought in by fishermen. 

HippoLYTB ORACiLiPss, Rand. — Philadelphia Cabinet. The speci- 
men so labelled was in bad condition, but certainly belonged to genus 
Palemon, Perhaps some interchange of labels had taken place. 

*HippoLYTB WuRDBMANNi — Charleston Cabinet. Brought /rom Key 
West, in 1845, by Dr. F. Wurdbmann. Found last year in CharleS" 
ton Harbour^ by James Johnson, Esq., of Charleston. Rostrum 
springing from the middle of the shell, and running forwards to the 
base of the last segment of the peduncle of the internal antennae, 
and to about two-thirds the length of the lamellar appendage of 
the external antennae, with four teeth on its upper edge, (not 
including the spine at the tip,) and a fiflh at the base, separated 
from the others by double interval, three or four teeth on lower edge, 
a spine on the anterior edge of the shell above the base of the exter- 
nal antennae, feet of second pair slender, filiform, multiarculate, long- 
est nearly twice the length of shell and rostrum together. 

*HippoLYTB PALUDOSA. — Charleston Cabinet. Obtained a few 
years since, in fresh water ponds, in St. Andrew's Parish, South-Car- 
olina, and presented to me by F. S. Holmes, Esq. The specimens 
were not quite perfect, having lost some of their feet and antennae. 
Rostrum springing from the anterior part of the shell, long, projecting 
beyond the peduncle of internal antennae, and a little beyond the la- 
mellar appendage of the external antennae, six to seven teeth on upper 
edge, three on lower, a spine on edge of shell, over the base of the 
external antennae. This I believe to be the first announcement of 
fresh water species of Hippolyte in the United States. Milnb Ed- 
wards appears to regard Hippolyte as masculine ; it surely is feminine 
and I have so regarded it. 

Rhynchocinbtes typus, M. Edw. — ^New-York Cabinet. A fine 
specimen of a remarkable genus of M. Edwards, very near 
Sippolyte^ but with the rostrum articulated with the shell, and 

Pandalus annulicornis, Leach — ^Charleston Cabinet. Taken By 
myself from the stomach of a Cod or Haddock, at Zynn, Mom, 


Palbmok BKRRATU6, Fabr. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Palimov squilla, Fabb. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Paismon locusta, Fabb. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

Palbmon yulgaris, Sat — New-York and Charleston Cabinets. 
Coasi of Mcbssachttsett8y Dr. Gould ; NeuhYorh^ Dr. DbKay ; com- 
mon in Charleston Harbour; on Coast oflTorida, Say. 

Palbmon cabcinus, Oliyibr — ^Boston, Philadelphia and Charleston 

Palbmon jamaicbnsis, Oliyibr — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. 
Also in American Museum in New- York. Mj specimens are from 
the Island of Cuba, brought by Dr. Wurdkmann. 

Palbmon punctatus, Randall — Philadelphia Cabinet. Supposed 
to come from the East Indies. 

Palbmon spinimanus. M. Edw. Charleston Cabinet. Brought 
with P.jamaicensis, from Cuba, by Dr. Wurdbmann. 

Palbmon oaudichaudii, M. Edw. — Philadelphia Cabinet. Two 
fine specimens of this species of M. Edwards, first brought from 
Chili by Gaudichaud. 

Palbmon orandimanus. Rand — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Palbmon oracilimanus, Rand — Philadelphia Cabinet. 


SiCYONiA 80ULPTA, M. Edw. — Boston Cabinet. 

Pbn^us brasilibnbis, Latr. — Charleston Cabinet. Under this 
name, I wish to indicate a species, which occasionally is met with on 
the Coast of South- Carolina. It agrees generally with M. Edwards' 
description of P. caramote, — ^having the rostrum running back to the 
posterior edge of the shell, with a sulcus on each side, continued 
equally far, and a third groove on the posterior part of the crest of 
the rostrum, also continued to the posterior edge of the shell — and I 
have sometimes so labelled it, but it has no spines on the base of the 
third pair of feet. My referring it to P. brasiliensis, Latr., is based 
on an assumption, it must be observed, that that species is Brazil- 
ian, and may occasionally visit our coast. I have not seen Latrbil- 
lb's description of it, and, therefore, cannot say that ours is new. 
Full grown individuals of this species are occasionally found in the 
^imp trays in the market, containing the following species. Once 
in our market I saw a tray full of half grown individuals of this spe- 


pENiEus SETIFERUS, M. Edw. — ^Boston, Philadelphia, and Charles- 
ton Cabinets. Abundant at certain seasons in Charleston Harbour. 
With the preceding known as Shrimps in our market. 


Phyllosoma communis, Leach — New-York Cabinet. 

Phyllosoma 8TYLIC0RNIS, M. Edw. — Ncw-York Cabinet. These 
specimens are the only representatives of this curious genus in our ' 

Squilla maculata, Fabr. — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

Squilla vittata, M. Edw. — ^American Museum, New- York. 

Squilla scabricauda, Latr. — Boston, New- York, and Charleston 
Cabinets. My specimen was presented to me by Dr. T. L. Ooier, 
of Charleston, to whom it had been brought by a fisherman, who had 
taken it off Charleston Harbour. 

Squilla mantis, Fabr. — Boston Cabinet. It is somewhat surpri- 
sing that Milne Edwards, in his description of this species, does not 
allude to the differences pointed out by Sat, between this species 
and his S. empusa. In this species, of the last four last thoracic 
segments, all but the last are bifurcate or bilobed at their exterior * 
terminations, as it is tolerably well exhibited in the figure of Herbst, 
pi. 33. fig. 1 ; the anterior one, (or that just behind the large plate 
or shell of the animal,) is bifurcate, the two spines being in the 
same horizontal plane or one anterior to the other, and the two fol- 
lowing segments are bilobate over the base of the feet. The lateral 
edges of the shell are not angulated, but rounded with tolerably uni- 
form curvature. The figure in the Encycl. Method, pi. 295, fig. 1, is 
so coarsely executed, like several other figures in that work, that it ' 
can scarcely be regarded as an adequate representation ; it exhibits, 
however, the two bilobate segments ; the other figure, pi. 324, is of 
another species, S. raphidea^ M. Edw., Seba^s fig. pi. 20, fig 2, is a ' 
better one. Desmarest's figure of S, mantis^ pi. 41, fig. 2, is refer- ' 
red to by Milne Edwards in his description of that species, but it 
is really a figure of 8, scorpio^ Latr, described by him two pages be- ' 
yond. The figures of Degeer, pi. 34, fig. 1, and of Latreille, Hist. 
Crust., pi. 55, fig. 3, referred to by M. Edwards, I have not seen. 

Squilla nepa, Latr. — Philadelphia Cabinet. Also in the Ameri- 
can Museum, New-York. 

Squilla empusa, Say — ^Boston, New- York, Philadelphia and 


Charleston Oabinets. This species is quite distinct from 8. fnonlif, 
as was pointed out by Sat. Of the four last thoracic segments, the 
most anterior, or one just behind the shell, is bifurcate, but the two 
spines are in the same vertical plane^ or one o&ove the other, when the 
animal is in the usual position for locomotion, and the two following 
segments are not bilobate. S, dtdna, M. Edw., and S, DewuaresHi^ 
Bisso, have a similar conformation. Dr. DkEay, (op. dt. p. 33) 
does not allude to these characters, which distinguish it from S, man- 
Hs^ though he insists on the distinctness of the two species. In this 
species there is also an obtuse angle on the lateral edges of the shell, 
which is wanting iu S. mantis. Found on the Coast of Bhode Island^ 
according to Sat ; New- York, Ds Eat ; frequently taken in Charles- 
Um Harbour, whence my specimens are derived ; Coast of East Flor- 

* S<)uiLLA NEGLSCTA — Charleston Cabinet. Obtained in Charleston 
Harbour. This new species resembles in many points, 8, empusa, 
but is readily distinguished by the following characters. The thora- 
cic segment just behind the shell is bifurcate, as in that species, with 
one spine above the other, but the uppermost is not narrowed giad- 
ually to an acutely pointed termination, bat its two edges are paral- 
lel, and the extremity is rounded, so that it is spatiiliform and not 
spiniform, the median crest of the last abdominal segment termi- 
nates posteriorly in an acute spine, twice as long as in the preceding 

Squilla dubia, M. Edw. — ^Boston and Charleston Cabinets. My 
specimens were obtained in Charleston Harbour, but it appears to be 
rare. Beadily distinguished from 8. empusa, by there being only 
ifour or five denticulations between the large terminal teeth of the 
last abdominal segment, and three or four between these teeth and 
the next large ones ; as in jS^. mantis, there are six teeth to the claws. 
A good idea of this species may be obtained from Desmarest's fig- 
ure, of 8. mantis, pi. 41, fig. 2, which, I feel confident, was drawn 
flrom a specimen of 8, scorpio, Latb., a species closely allied to this ; 
only four teeth, however, instead of five, on the claws, are distinctly 
indicated in the figure. 

Squilla Desharbstu, Risso. — ^Boston Cabinet. 
Squilla sttlifsra, Lam. Philadelphia and Charleston Cabi- 

Squilla Csaisii, Boux. New-York and Philadelphia Cabinets. 


60NODAOITLUB OHIRAORI7S, Latr. — ^Boston, Philadelphia, and 
Charleston Cabinets. My specimens are from Key West. 

GoNODACTTLus 8CTLLARUS, Latr. — ^Boston Cabinet. 

G0NODACTTLU8 STTUFERus, M. Edw; — Philadelphia Cabinet. 

The preceding enumeration contains 250 species, of which 22 are 
described as new. Of those enumerated, 94 belong to the Atlantic 
Coast of the United States, of which 19 are new, and 10 more^ 
though already described, yet were not distinctly recognized as be- 
longing to our Fauna. The species of Podolphthalmian Crustacea, 
known to belong to our Fauna, but not embraced in the above enu- 
meration, are Pilumnus Harrisii^ Gould ; Pinnotheres cylindricum^ 
Say ; P. depressum, Sat, Porcellana pUosa^ M. £dw., Crangon boreas^ 
Fabr., and My sis spinulostts^ Lbaoh, giving 100 species to our Fauna. 

There are several undetermined, and in some cases, most probably 
undescribed forms, both native and foreign, in my Cabinet, as also in 
the others, but the want of works of reference, and particularly want 
of specimens, deter me from describing at present I have made 
several attempts to obtain correspondents on the coast of the north- 
em States, and in Florida and Cuba, as also in Europe, for exchange 
of specimens, but so far without success. 

On the Morphohyieal Difference of Organs^ by Prof. Agassiz. 

[Not received.] 

Meteorological and Mortuary Chart of New-Orleans^ for 1849, by 

Dr. E. H. Barton, of New-Orleans. 

A Report on this Chart was given by Prof. Leconte, to whom it 
had been referred, accompanied by remarks on the importance and 
difficulties of Mortuary Statistics. 

Observations on the Geology of Ashley River^ South- Carolina ; by 
F. S. Holmes, Esq., of Charleston^ S, C. 

The first exposure of the Eocene Marl, so extensively developed 
on Ashley River, occurs one mile below Ashley Ferry, and about 
six miles in a direct line North-West of Charleston. The estimated 
thickness of this bed, called by Mr. Ruffin, " the great Carolina 
Marl Bed,'^ is about eight hundred feet, as determined in boring the 


Artesian well in Charleston; and by the same means we have 
ascertained that the underlying beds are cretaceous. 

The porous beds of the Buhr-stone or lowest Eocene, from which 
was expected a supply of water, are found to have " thinned out" 
before reaching the city, and thus were we disappointed of our hopes, 
and must penetrate to a greater depth in or below the Cretaceous in 
search of a water-bearing stratum. 

In ascending the river, the marl is seen gradually rising, until at 
Bacon's bridge, the head of navigation, it attains the height of eight 
feet above the level of the tide. The surface of the bed is quite ir- 
regular, with numerous circular depressions, from one to four feet 
deep : which are filled with detrital matter, containing many fbssOs 
from the superimposed beds. 

Rich as the marl is in the remains of Foraminiferce of many genera, 
and of the most gigantic size, it nevertheless is very poor in fossils 
of the larger forms of molluscous animals ; Gryphea mutabilis, Ano- 
mia jugosa, and a few others only, are to be had in a perfect state, 
though the whole bed abounds in casts of various species. 

Of the remains of marine vertebrata, it has been pronounced by 
Prof. AoAssiz, who accompanied me on a visit to the most interest- 
ing localities on the river, to be " the greatest cemetery he ever saw." 
I have myself collected from it many thousand specimens of the 
teeth of Squalidae, and I am confident thirty thousand of such speci- 
mens have been taken from it within the last six years. Prior to the 
visit of Prof. Aoassiz, a few specimens only of the remains of quad- 
rupeds had been found upon the Ashley. This was owing to the fact 
that the collectors of these fossils were searching in the Marl, and 
not in the overlying beds ; but we can now number no less than 
twenty-two or three species in my own cabinet and those of two 

These fossils were at first supposed to belong to the Marl bed or 
Eocene formation, but subsequent investigations show that they do 
not, and I will now proceed to point out their true position in the 

The Miocene and Pliocene formations are missing upon the banks 
o^ the Ashley, that is to say, we have as yet found no fossils charac- 
teristic of these beds, but between the Post-Pliocene and the Marl^ 
in the position in which the Pliocene should be found, we have two 
or three strata, containing fossils which make them exceedingly inte- 
resting to the geologist, and which are not found in the Eocene Marl 
bed below. 


The first of these is a thin, irr^ular stratum of loose gravellj 
sand, which lies immediately upon the marl, and which seldom ex- 
ceeds eight inches in thickness.* From the number of fish teeth and 
bones found in this sand, Professor Tuomet called it the ^^ Ashley 
Jish-bed.'*^ Above, and in a manner mixed with it, is another of irre- ' 
gular and partly rolled fragments of what is commonly called marl- 
rock — the interstices between each being filled with blue tiiud. These 
rocks contain the same forms of fossils as are found' in the marl 
below; but the lime which they must have contained had been 
extracted, leaving a silicious mass much water-worn and boulder-like 
in appearance, and emitting a foetid odor when broken. The Marl of 
the Ashley contains about 70 per cent, of carbonate of lime — ^these 
only a small quantity, say 2 or 3 per cent. 

That they belong to and were broken off the Marl bed below, 
there can be no doubt, but at what period they were washed up and 
deposited where we now find them, is still undetermined. They 
extend over many miles of the surrounding country ; increase in size 
towards the north-west, and decrease in the opposite course, south- 
west, where we find them under the city of Charleston. 

For the most part, they are enveloped, as I said, in a matrix of 
blue mud or clay, though often a peaty substance (query, marsh 
roots ?) takes the place of the clay, and again the clay and peat are 
missing, and they are found in the sand. 

Next in the Order of super-position are the red clay, yellow sands 
and alluvium of the country ; the Post-Pliocene, like the Miocene in 
other parts of the State, is only found in patches ; its geological 
position is under the red clay. 

In the strata of sand, marl-rock, blue mud and peat, just described, 
we find the following fossils : Bones and teeth of Mastodon, Mega- 
therium, Dinotherium, Elephant, Deer, Horse, Cow, Hog, Muskrat, 
etc. etc., mixed up with the remains of marine animals ; but in the 
Marl not a single fragment of a Mammalian has yet been discovered, 
except cetacean. If ever a specimen has been taken from the Marl, 
it was near its surface — ^perhaps from some hole or depression so 
shallow as to escape the notice of the finder, and there can be no 
doubt that in this manner several Naturalists have, been deceived in 
supposing these fossils to have come out of the true Eocene Marl. 

* In boring the Artesian Well in Charleston, this stratum was reached at about 
Boij feet below the surface, and. from it a supply of good water is obtained ; the 
water rises within four feet of the surface. 



I am oonvinoed they belong to a more recent formation, and we 
must await further mvestigation ere we attempt a determination of 
the ages of these beds. 

I herewith submit groups of fossils from the different beds to the 
escamination of the Association. 

Prof. Agassiz remarked on the importance of the paper read in 
Paleeontology, in showing so large a number of mammalia, there 
having been more genera found in the fossil beds of South-Carolina, 
than there are now living on the whole Coast of the United States. 

A recess of fiften minutes was taken at 1 o'clock, and after the 
recess business was resumed, Prof. Tuomby in the Chair. 

Rev. Dr. Baouman's work on the Unity of the Human Race, was 
presented in his name to the Association. 

The following paper, was presented by Prof. Shbpard, to whom 
it had been referred. 

On some results relating to the Proximate Composition of the diffe- 
rent parts of the flowers oj several plants, and of the plants them- 
selves, and on the Inorganic Matter in Gfums and Chim-Resins ; by 
J. H, Salisbxtrt, M.D., of Albany, New-York, 

HoRBB Chbstkut (iEsculus hippocastanum,) May 18th ; plant in 
full bloom. 

Percentage of Water, Dry Matter and Aeh in the 

Ptttoentage of water, - - 
Do. dry matter, - 

Do. Ash, - - - 

Do. Ash cal. on the dry mat. 





83 4191 





14 9:5 


















7.2 9 

5 .5 








Parts mentioned in the order of the inorganic matter which they 

contain, commencing with the highest. 

Peduncles — Ash calculated on the dry matter, 
Sepals, receptacles and pedicels, *' 

Bark of limbs. 
Pistils and ovaries, 





Leaf blades — calculated oa the dry matter, . 7.746 

Young twigs and petioles, " . 7.269 

Stamens, " . 5.821 

Petals, " . 5.487 

Wood of limbs, " - 1.116 

Results obtained from several parts of the Horse Chestnut plant, 
May 4th, before the flower buds began to show themselves ; leaves 
from two to three inches long ; imbricated scales of buds not yet 
fallen off. 

Percentage of Water, Dry Matter and Ash in the 

Imbricated I 
with wax. 

Yonng twigsi 

and getiolea,! Bark firoml Wood fVom 

8 to 3 incliM limbs 2 inches limbs dinoiiai 


in diameter. 

in diamater. 

Percentage of water, - 
Do. dry matter, 

Do. ash 

Do. Ash cal. on dry mat 





















The foregoing results show an evident decrease in the percentage 
of inorganic matter in several parts of the plant, from May 4th to 
to May 18th. 

Tiger lily (Lilium tigrinum) in the early stage of flowering, before 
the petals were fairly unfolded ; July 20th. 

Percentage of Water, Dry Matter and A»h in the 

Percentage of water, - - - - 
Do. dry matter, ... 

Do. ash, ---.,- 

Do. Ash calc. on dry matter, - 

PiMela. lOvariflB. 












Filament! I 

of stamens. Petalii. 






Tiger lily in the advanced stage of flowering ; petals filling ; Au- 
gust dd. 

Percentage relation of the several parts of the flower to each other. 
Percentage of anthers, . ^. . . 7.029 

Do. pistils, ..... 2.872 

Do. ovaries, .... 2.316 

Do. filaments of stamens, - - 15.174 

Do. petals, .... 72.610 



r 4. *» a 






4U. r.. ff" 

_ * 

.7: iiii- U^i ^JH»' 

. J" 3:.ii*rtftsinu * i.~i:'- iir- lit.* 






CZ..1SSS, -r 




Compontion of Inorganic Matter in 

Plum tree 

Gom anu 

6am tra- 


Olibanam or 














Phosphate of Lime, > 
** Magnesia, ) 







" Iron, - 














Magnesia, - 







Potash, - 








N 0.950 






Salphoiic Acid, - 







Chlorine, - 







Carbonic Acid, - 







Organic Acids, - 













The specimens of gum used in the foregoing results, were the pu- 
rest that could be obtained. They ^eemed to be entirely free from 
foreign matter. The carbonic acid is formed during the combustion. 
In the resins, the inorganic bases are probably in the form of pinates, 
silvates, phosphates, sulphates and chlorides. 

Prof. Agassiz read a paper — 

On the Structure of the Halcyonmd Polypi ; by Prof. Agassiz. 

Aftbr removing the so-called Hydroid Polypi from the class of 
Polypi, to place them among Medusae, and the Bryozoa being referred 
to their true natural position among Mollusca, the class of Polypi, 
contains only two natural groups of animals, the Actinoid Polypi, 
and the Halcyonoid Polypi. 

Having, on a former occasion, given an account of my investiga- 
tions, of the former group, 1 will now proceed to make some remarks 
upon the Halcynoid Polypi of the United States, which I have 
had an opportunity to examine. They belong to three different 


One of these genera is the well known Menilla reniformisy which 
is extremely abundant on the Southern shores of the Uoited St^^tes. 
. Though this genus is already well characterized, J have made upon 
it some remarks which may not be without interest. 

■''■''' •!- ". t-** ■«• Ctr in«i- V .^nuiant »> twin ita duo» 
.1 / t *';»••''■•• Iff '/ '■• »»»^n -rt Iwir ',nw» ira boght in an eijMH. 
/ft ' .' A---- -•/--V.-.4 »iit -t* iriwMt Kite of conlrattioti. 
//f,. /, - -jirM"! ■'- ••/"^ -fn^-t- lO'-'^c, «rok in Mnd, its lowest 
/ "/ ,/,,. ^ -ffV,!'/- !«*■•,■ im '>v^,jf Iwif., vifnewlMt compressed \it» 
/iir^ ft,' *f,F/t'h* frtt*. '4 ff^ •»>:«» Ht nuin cj'lindrical ; but in is 
llt-f.'lfinn It itin<r, M.\ntfj-9 • Mi'rrt oT Anitiel, coEopresaedke- 
Itdlf I 'iiiiiiu-n nU^i )f» |/rr/»irnnnt diameter, under the lowersr- 
til' I Ji( Mil- 'Ihk TtiH <\Uk tlw'ir, )h kidney or heart shaped. tloiia 
III I III' iiil'I'll", wliMiiwillitii, nml ffrowlng thinner towards tkcdn 
IIh lull HI HiHDii't* !■ NiMiriiLli ftt thn «toTn, but there is a son M'rui 
H'XI iilNi<ni<i) ii|ii>ii II, P^lnnrllng (Wim the smmnit vf tht nai 
hiii<iiiUlli)> ttiniulti, ttiid iiiriVNiiDndingtotbeU 
ttti It) \i4 lh)> t4i>tnli<il H»lhiMlM,ii(Hin the upper i 
Hi-M' urn H*' |'.'l\|il »,\\*S,\\f ptthitf (Vmu the st*». «*■ frim. iw )i»i 
.^'.»^,■^■ m ttii' iti.V ( tl«\> #11 srisc fri'-m iW *?»«■ *a^«B ma -Bt 
^*, .-,,k,n,,( j>.,t, ,M „.,:„, )\^^n\ » A-'i'W *.-«*. it ^f- irm if "T«- 

^v ..—,,. .i.,i,\ i,rv^ 'Kf jisW r\- mt. />im»r mm un\ iibii tstp « 




tentacles. The cavity of these individual animals is divided into 
eight partitions, by longitudinal folds of their walls, and to these folds 
the digestive cavity is adherent above, but it opens free into the 
main cavity of the buds, in its lower part. There is no division, no 
partition at the bottom of the individual polypi, so that the food 
which has been digested in the* upper alimentary sack, as soon as it 
is emptied into the main tube of each polyp, passes into the main 
cavity of the disk, and is circulated, not only in that cavity, but also 
within the main cavity of the stem. The water, also, which distends 
the whole body, is introduced through the mouth of the individual 
polyps, and expelled through the same aperture when the body con- 
tracts. This animal has a very remarkable phosphoresence. It 
shines at night with a golden green light of a most wonderful soft- 
ness. When excited, it flashes up more intensely, and when suddenly 
immersed into alcohol, throws out the most brilliant light. The stem 
has no solid support at all, as is the case with several other genera of 
the same family, but there calcareous spicule arranged in a radiating 
manner in the disk, and a few clusters of them at the base, and at 
the summit of the body, of each individual animal, situated in the 
spaces corresponding to the intervals between the lobed tentacles. 

I have collected hundreds of specimen^ of tMs species upon the 
beaches of Sullivan's Island, in the bay of Charleston, South-Caroli- 
na, and also on the beaches south of Savannah, in Georgia, upon 
Warsaw Island. 


The genus Halcyonium is usually spelled Aloyonyum, but this is 

I am not aware that any species of this genus has as yet been 
noticed upon the shores of the United States. In August, 1847) I 
dredged, however, a very handsome specimen, off Cape Cod, belong- 
ing to this type. It was attached to a loose shell of Mytilus Modio- 
lus, upon the concave side of the shell, and seemed to differ from the 
known species of that genus, in having a proportionally small body, 
from which rose a cluster of long tubular individual polypi, each of 
which wasi nearly as long as the greatest diameter of the common 
base, from which they arose. When fully expanded, the individual 
polypi were tubular, cylindrical, slightly contracted under the tenta- 
cles, which spread in the form of an octagonal star, the lobes stretch- 


Vig^lighUy outside, and somemrhat arched and downward* The foroa 
Qt Qftch tentacle was conical, with a rounded tip ; the lobes of the 
BUNTg^ were proportionally not very deep ; the odd terminal loba 
larger than the lateral ones, the relative size of which was gradually 
leas from the tip of the tentacles to its base. The mouth waa slight- 
ly oblong, without folds, and below it hangs a cylindrical main 
dig^tive cavity extending for about one-fourth of the whole length 
U) the expanded state of the tube, but occupying nearly one half* of 
its length when distended by food in the contracted state of th^ 

The main cavity of the body is subdivided by eight prominenib 
fidd^ into as many imperfect partitions, shut from each other in ti^ 
region of the stomach by their adher^ce to its outer sur&oe. The 
substance of the body is rather consistent. The main bulk, from 
whicb the individual polypi arise is especially tough, being supported 
by numerous calcareoMS spicule, spread irregularly through it9 mii^; 
but even the individual polypi are of tough substance, less moveable 
ttoi those of Renilla, and expanding and contracting very slowly, 
while the polypi of I^enilla are rather active. In consequeoQe qS 
this toughness of the substance, it was rather difllcult to ascertjMii 
thft internal arrang|pien|(||f the parts, and to trace the cir<»)]^t|on 
withiA the main cavity. I could however, satisfy myself that tb^re 
9^ four ovarian bunches haoging from the inner projecting margin of 
the lateral folds, projecting into the cavity below the slioniaeh ; and 
a few eggs were still suspended to those bunches, which consisted of 
curled threads, coiled irregularly into four bunches. Besides these, 
there were two other threads hanging more loosely from two other 
partitions, which, probably were spermatic cords, th<^h I coidd not 
detect any spermatic cells in connection with them. But the di&Bei|c# 
in tfete fuypeet of theee threads, when oontra^tied ^th those from WLUch 
Ih^ eggs hang, will scarcely leave any doubt aa to tibeir reid natiire, 
The fluid contained in the nuun cavity cirodates regulariy up^ %Rd 
down between the partitions, and the ourrenta extend into the %m%ik 
eles and foUow M^ the aij^uoaities of their lobes to Urn aiwfnit of tiM 
tentades, letusning in the cf^pooite direction. 

The movements of the individual polyps are regidaled by buodlM 
<if eontraetUe fibres extending along the partitions in tbe main WiiU 
of the body. These bu»dle9, are attached above and below to etuffr 
tmrs of qaloarecws spioidaB, which are ananged in a regvlaF oeder io 
tke fejaa of proDuncnt coid^wUhiA tha outer wall of eitch paititieii» 


fOR THlE AibVJLHtClSiatlft OF cfcmBNOifc. Itl 

imd upon the outer wall of each tentacle, at its base. Tliese ^culft 
the mieroscopic stems of a ra^ed appearance, formed, probably, by 
the reunion of a number of calcareous crystals developed in distinct 
cells, and united together in a somewhat regular manner, so as to 
form longitudinal stems with irregular projections upon their surfii^. 
Numbers of these little stems converge, in two parallel rows with 
their tips towards the tip of the tentacles, and others from the base 
assume a similar arrangement, and form larger cones around the 
base of the tube of the animal. 

The point of insertion of the contractile fibres is in the narrow 
angles between those clusters, aAd they rise from the base of thfe 
tube upwards to the base of the tentacles, thus extending over the 
irhole length of that part of the tube which is most contractile and 

It remains to be seen whether the specimen of this animal whii^ 
fell into my hands was quite full grown; for it is possible that ilbe 
cluster observed was the beginning of a larger body, to be formed 
by the addition of a greater number of individual polypi growing out 
of the common base. 

Should it be found, upon farther investigation, that this type is a 
permanent combination, and that the stalk never grows to a bullcy 
mass, and that the polypi arising from it are always proportionally 
so much larger than the stem itself, it may constitute a generic type 
intermediate between Halcyonum proper and Renilla. I have, at 
least, never seen the individual polyps disappear entirely under the 
surface of the body, as we know to be the case among the true fieriiy 

For the distinction of the species, I s^all propose the name of 
ffdlcifonium cameufn, designating its flesh-oolor, and also the greater 
tsoftness of the bulk when compared with the ordinary Halcyouiams. 


The third genus of the Halcyonoid Polypi which occurs alotig tlie 
shores of the Southern States is the genus Goi^onia, with its jamf 
species about the Florida Keys, one of which is very common as fkflr 
berth as the Carolinas. Of this species I have had r^Msa^iedly aea 
opportunity to examine living specimens with their expanded animals. 
The genus is well diaracterized by having a homy solid stem attadied 
hy a spreading base to solid bodies at the bottom of the i^ea. 


The spedes vary great); in the manner in which this stem branches 
and in the combination of these branches into a spreading shnib-like 
growth, with distinot brantdies or &n-like flat expanmona and anastO' 
mosing branches. Although there seems to be no regularity in the 
distribution of the individual polyps upon the main stem, there is, 
nevertheless, one circumstance which should not be lost sight of|and 
requires further investigation fully to appreciate its meaning. It will 
be observed, indeed, that upon one side of the stem there is a dec^ 
furrow following the direction of the branches, as well as that of the 
maia stem, and so assigning a peculiar character to one side of the 
branches. But how this furrow is Ibrmed I have not been able to 
asoertain. No polyp rises from its depression, nor even from its 
margin. They uniformly spring up from the plain surface of the 
branches in the shape of short tubes expanding into eight, lobed, 
rounded tentacles, supported at their base by calcareous spiculs. 
The mouth is so rq^lar as not to afTord the means of distinguishing 
the longitudinal axis. 

Even without taking into consideration the various modes in which 
the individual polyps are combined to form a regular Iddney'Shaped 
disk, as in Remilla, or an irregular spreading body, as in Halcyo- 
nium, or a branching stalk, as in Goi^onia, we iind in the structure 
of the individual polypi differences which sufiidently characterize 
these genera in the form of their tentacles. In RenUla the isolated 
tentacles are elongated and lobed only towards their extremity and 
upon part of their sides. In Halcyonium the tentacles are triangular 
and the longer lobe is terminal, while in Goi^onia the tentacles are 
rounded and the lobes more uniform. The species of Gorgonia 
wbidi 1 have examined is Gorgimta virgulata. The numerous varieties 
which occur in Charleston Harbour should induce some Naturalist to 
enter upon a very minute investigation of the structure and develop- 
ment of that species, in order fully to ascertain what are the changes 
which it undet^oes with ^e, and what are the natural limits of the 
species in this genus ; for the species are so numerous, and they all 
seem to vary so much, that until a complete moDOgraphio investiga- 
tion of one species has been made, it will be impassible to determine 
foreign species which have not been observed carefully 

ions of color which occur in this species are very 
1 have seen specimens growing together, and undoubt- 
{ to the same species, which were light yellow, and 


almost white, passing into a dark yellow tint ; others light orange; 
others dark orange ; then light purple varieties ; others almost pink, 
or bluish purple, and some perfectly white as pure chalk. It is really 
a wonderful sight to behold these varieties growing together in clear 
water and spreading over considerable surfaces with all these colors 
mingled. From the same stone specimens will arise of all these diffe- 
rent hues. At times stems of one color will grow from the bore of 
stems of other colors ; but I have never been able to discover a 
branch of another color upon the same stem, or the stems of different 
colors arising from the same base. Wherever this seems to be the 
case, upon close examination it is always found that the parts differ- 
ing in color have distinct origins, although they may grow upon each 
other, as they all grow upon stones or other sub-marine bodies. 

Although it may be difficult to raise eggs and see the whole pro- 
cess of development, it is so very easy to collect a series of speci- 
mens in all stages of growth, from their first appearance in the shape 
of minute buds upon the surface from which layer specimens arise, 
that, for a persevering observer on the spot there will be no difficulty 
in tracing the whole range of the metamorphoses. I would only 
mention what an examination of a few days has enabled me to 
observe, that the new stems sprout in the form of stiff, erect, simple 
stems ; that more advanced specimens show a simple bifurcation, 
which will successively give rise to a greater number of branches. 
At first, the young polypi have only a narrow base of attachment, 
and we find only in larger ones that the stem spreads into a wide 
flat base, by which it is attached to the ground. The mode of devel- 
opment of this base might also be easily ascertained by a series of 
specimens carefully collected for that purpose, and placed side by 
side, to see the changes in the development. It is to be hoped that 
some intelligent young naturalist at the South will supply the 
deficiency of these observations, gathered during a hurried excursion. 

Whether this species occurs in other parts of the ocean beyond 
the limits of the United States, is a point which I am unable to 
determine. It may be that the indications of other localities in 
which Oorgonia virgulata is said to occur are either incorrect or have 
reference to closely allied representative species growing in other 
parts of the world. 

The reading of the papers being now finished. Prof. Bachk re- 
sumed the Chair, and read the following report of the Standing Com-